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Protest the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges

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Call and bring your evidence forward. Ask them to talk about CPS and family court corruption and how we can work together to fix this. Bring cases together. Ask for their fax and e-mail to send info. Let’s DO this!!!!!
‎74th Annual Conference
July 24-27, 2011  New York
(775) 784-6920
Conference Planning and Marketing Dept.
Conference Topics
• Firearms, Weapons and Schools
• Identifying and Responding to Elder Sexual Assault
• Juvenile Justice Performance Measures
• Ethics
…• A National Look at the Past, Present and Future of Family Drug Courts
• Tribal Engagement: From a Place of Honor and Respect
• Research on Family Court Issues
• Self-Represented Litigants
• Protective Orders and Animal Cruelty
• Trauma-Informed System of Care
• Evidentiary Issues in Elder Abuse Cases
• Juvenile Firesetting/Arson: A Review of Disposition Options
• No Wrong Door: NCJFCJ’s Multi-Court Collaboration
• Where is Evidence Leading Us Now? Current Trends in Research, Performance Measurement
and Program Evaluation
• Cultural Competence and the Courts
• Family Law Education Reform Project
• Getting What You Need from Custody Evaluations
• Adjudicating the Hidden Dimensions of Sexual Assault
• Judicial Actions that Enhance Protection for Immigrant Victims of Domestic Violence
• Ensuring Compliance in Civil Protection Orders
• Improving Court/Agency Communications via Data Sharing
• When Women Use Violence
• Case Law Update
• Online Learning for Juvenile Justice Professionals
• LGBTQ Youth and the Juvenile Justice System
• Evidence-Based Practice and Status Offenders
• Juveniles and Animal Cruelty: Serious Considerations
• Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative
• High Conflict Families
• It Takes a Circle: Chicago’s Healing Circle Project
• Crafting Effective Supervised Visitation Cases
• After Nicholson: Doing Better for Battered Moms
• What Does the Military Offer Children, Youth and Families in Crisis?
• Gender Matters: Unique Interventions for Girls
• Custody Evaluator’s Beliefs on Domestic Violence Allegations: Implications for the Bench
• Engaging Families in Child Welfare Services: Successful Strategies and Promising Practice for Courts
• Compassion Fatigue and Judicial Burnout

Written by dawneworswick

July 20, 2011 at 7:12 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

Texas CPS Memo “Quit violating the Constituion, or we could be sued!”

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October  9, 2008



Posted In:               Texas Laws       

          By Robert Guest on October  9, 2008 10:18 AM

Thanks to the TDCAA website for posting this memo from CPS. Recently, CPS was sued by two parents in Fort Bend County for numerous constitutional violations.

The 5th Circuit Court of Appeals held that CPS could be liable to future litigants (under a 1983 claim). Normally, the government grants itself immunity from lawsuits. However, the 5th Circuit held that CPS may not have immunity if they continue to violate the constitutional rights of parents. Rightfully, CPS is scared about the possibility of massive judgments against them. Hence this urgent memo to employees.

From the CPS memo-

On July 28, 2008, a federal appeals court with authority over Texas handed down a decision in a case that will be referred to as “the Gates case.”   The decision is binding on Texas and because it involves federal constitutional rights, supersedes anything to the contrary in Texas law, or DFPS policy or practice.I. INTRODUCTION

The Gates case is significant for two key reasons.  First, it sets out a new standard that will require DFPS to obtain a court order prior to removal in a much larger proportion of our cases and affects whether we can transport or enter a home.  Second, it is significant because it clarifies that if the standard is not followed, staff could be sued as individuals and lose qualified immunity, i.e., be responsible for monetary damages.


CPS may consider this a “new” standard. I disagree. The Constitution has been around longer than CPS. CPS shouldn’t be surprised that it applies to them.

Consent Searches
Just like the police will ask for consent to search your car, CPS will ask for consent to search your home.  This memo reminds CPS that they can not invade private residences without a court order, consent, or emergency.

Parents, read this section and learn these rules. If CPS wants to enter your home it is not to help you. Call an attorney to protect your rights.




As with removals, in order to gain entry into a home for the purpose of a CPS investigation, we must have one of the following:  1) exigent circumstances, 2) consent, or 3) a court order, but the Gates ruling provided additional explanation concerning exigent circumstances and consent that will affect our practices.

NOTE:  even if we do have exigent circumstances to enter a home, it may be more appropriate for safety reasons to call law enforcement to gain entry.

Current Practice:  CPS enters a family’s home only if we have exigent circumstances, consent, or a court order.  CPS does not always ensure consent is specific to our investigators.  A court order in aid of investigation is rarely utilized.

New Practice:  As with removals, exigent circumstances are present only where there is immediate danger to a child in the home, i.e. life or limb is in immediate jeopardy.  Consent must be clear, unequivocal, voluntary and given specifically to CPS, as opposed to law enforcement.  We will likely increase the use of court orders in aid of investigation.


One sentence sticks out. CPS will increase the use of court orders. That is a great idea. Instead of taking children first, and then going to court; CPS should actually investigate, then go to court for a removal. Of course, if this turns into a rubber stamp situation like DWI blood search warrants, then again there will be no justice.

More on the consent guidelines below the fold….

From the Memo-

2. Consent 

The Gates case serves as an important reminder about the need for consent to enter a home for the purposes of conducting a CPS investigation.  Key points are:

• Consent must be affirmative.  It is not enough that a person does not say no.  Consent for CPS to enter a home must be voluntarily given and unequivocal (clear).  You should identify yourself as a CPS investigator and explicitly request and receive permission to enter the home.  The best practice is to ensure that the person states you may enter (rather than simply getting a nod or other non-verbal gesture).  In any case you must document the basis for consent in your narrative.
• Consent should be from someone with authority to give it.  A parent has the authority to consent to or deny entry to the home.  It is also reasonable to assume that if the parents have left one or more children in the care of an adult caretaker, that caretaker has the authority to consent to allow the caseworker to enter the home and interview the child in private, although a caretaker probably does not have the authority to permit a search of the entire house.  If an adult is not home, the caseworker should rely on the consent of a child in the home only if the child appears old enough to effectively give consent.  Teenagers will likely be old enough; children 12 or younger probably will not.
• Consent can be withdrawn at any time.  Anyone with authority to give consent can also withdraw it at any time.  The decision of a parent or other individual living in the home is the final word.  So, if entry is gained after a housekeeper who does not live in the home gives consent, a parent or other individual living in the home could at any point instruct CPS to leave and we would be obligated to do so.
• Consent must be given to CPS.  We routinely conduct joint investigations with law enforcement, but it is important to remember that our activities are separate.  If law enforcement gains entry to a home, we must still request permission for CPS to enter.  Moreover, if law enforcement determines consent is not necessary to their investigation, this determination does not apply to us.  We must independently determine whether there are exigent circumstance or whether we have been given consent to enter.

Written by dawneworswick

July 16, 2011 at 10:18 pm

Posted in Uncategorized


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A guide to protect the constitutional rights of both parents and children
as ruled by the Federal Circuit Courts and Supreme Court


Know your rights before you talk to anyone from CPS/DCF or let them in
your house, they won’t tell you your rights.
CPS/DCF can’t do anything without your consent, demand a warrant and
speak with an attorney first before speaking with anyone from CPS/DCF, it could
cost you your children.



The United States Court of Appeals for the
Ninth Circuit said it best, “The government’s interest in the welfare of
children embraces not only protecting children from physical abuse, but also
protecting children’s interest in the privacy and dignity of their homes and in
the lawfully exercised authority of their parents.”

v. Floyd, 189 F.3d 808 (9th Cir. 1999


Permanent termination of parental rights has been
described as “the family law equivalent of the death penalty in a criminal
case.”  Therefore, parents “must be
afforded every procedural and substantive protection the law allows.” Smith (1991), 77 Ohio App.3d 1, 16, 601 N.E.2d 45, 54.


“There is no system ever devised by mankind that is
guaranteed to rip husband and wife or father, mother and child apart so bitterly
than our present Family Court System.”

Judge Brian Lindsay

Retired Supreme Court Judge

New York,New York


“There is something bad happening to our children in
family courts today that is causing them more harm than drugs, more harm than
crime and even more harm than child molestation.”

Judge Watson L. White

Superior Court Judge

Cobb County,Georgia




Written by:


Thomas M. Dutkiewicz, President

ConnecticutDCF Watch

P.O. Box3005







The decision in the case of Doe et al, v. Heck et al (No. 01-3648,
2003 US
App. Lexis 7144
) will affect the manner in which law enforcement and
Child Protective Services (“CPS”) investigations of alleged child abuse or neglect
are conducted.  The decision of the 7th
Circuit Court of Appeals found that the practice of a “no prior consent”
interview of a child will ordinarily constitute a “clear violation” of the
constitutional rights of parents under the 4th and 14th
Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.   According to the Court, the investigative
interview of a child constitutes a “search and seizure” and, when conducted on
private property without “consent, a warrant, probable cause, or exigent
circumstances,” such an interview is an unreasonable search and seizure in
violation of the rights of the parent, child, and, possibly the owner of the
private property.


The mere possibility or risk of harm does
not constitute an emergency or exigent circumstance that would justify a forced
warrantless entry and a warrantless seizure of a child.  Hurlman v. Rice, (2nd Cir. 1991)


due-process violation occurs when a state-required breakup of a natural family
is founded solely on a “best interests” analysis that is not supported by the
requisite proof of parental unfitness.  Quilloin v. Walcott, 434 U.S. 246, 255,





v. Commonwealth
of Kentucky


The Court of Appeals of Kentuckyvacated and remanded a decision by
the Barren Circuit Court which terminated parental rights because of sexual
abuse.  The court found that a child’s
statements to a counselor during therapy and a physician during a physical
examination were hearsay and inadmissible at trial under the U.S. Supreme Court
case, Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36, 124 S. Ct. 1354, 158 L.
Ed. 2d 177 (2004
), because the child did not
testify at trial and there was no opportunity for cross-examination of the
child.  Because the child’s statements
were inadmissible, the child welfare agency failed to present clear and
convincing evidence that the child had been sexually abused.  Cite:
NO. 2004-CA-001979-ME and NO. 2004-CA-002032-ME, 2005 Ky. App. LEXIS 163 (Ky. Ct. App 2005)



The District of Columbia Court of Appeals reversed a
lower court’s order terminating a father’s parental rights to his children,
based on that court’s finding of neglect; the appeals court holding that the
erroneous termination order was based on inadmissible hearsay testimony.  The Court of Appeals concluded that the father
adequately preserved his objection to admission of the testimony, and
consequently reversed the termination order and remanded the case for further
proceedings consistent with its opinion. Cite:
No. 01-FS-1307; No. 01-FS-1320; 2005 D.C. App. LEXIS 390 (D.C. July 21, 2005)



Preface. 1


The Authors
. 1


Introduction.. 1


1 – Never Ever Trust Anyone from CPS/DCF
.. 2


2 – Are All CPS Workers in the United States Subject to the 4th And 14th


3 – The Fourth Amendment’s Impact on Child Abuse Investigations
. 8


4 – When Is Consent Not Consent?
.. 8


6 – Do Children Have Legal Standing to Sue CPS for Their Illegal Abduction from
Their Home and Violating Their 4th and 14th Amendment Rights?
.. 11


7 – Summary of Family Rights (Family Association)


8 – Warrantless Entry
. 12


9 – Due Process
. 13


  – Seizures (Child Removals) 14


11 – Immunity
. 15


12 – Decisions of the United States Supreme Court Upholding
Parental Rights
as “Fundamental”
. 16





This is only a guide to your constitutional protections in the
context of an investigation of alleged child abuse and neglect by Child
Protective Services (“CPS”).  Every state
has variances of CPS in one form or another.
Some are called DCF, DHS, DSS, DCYS, DCFS, HRS, CYS and FIA,
collectively known as “CPS” for the purposes of this handbook.  The material in this handbook should be
supplemented by your own careful study of the 4th and 14th
Amendments and other Constitutional protections that are guaranteed even in the
context of dealing with CPS.


The intent of this handbook is to inform parents, caregivers and
their attorneys that they can stand up against CPS and Juvenile Judges when
they infringe upon the rights of both parents and children.  As you read this handbook, you will be amazed
what your rights are and how CPS conspires with the Assistant Attorney General
(“AAG”) who then in turn has the Judge issue warrant/orders that are unlawful
and unconstitutional under the law.
Contrary to what any CPS officials, the AAG, Juvenile Judge or any
social workers may say, they are all subject to and must yield to the 4th and
14th Amendment just like police officers according to the Circuit and District
Courts of the United States
and the Supreme Court.  CPS workers can
be sued for violations of your 4th and 14th Amendments, they lose their
“immunity” by those “Deprivation of Rights Under the Color of Law” and must be
sued in their “Official and Individual” capacity in order to succeed in a §§
1983 and 1985 civil right’s lawsuit.  If
the police assisted CPS in that deprivation of rights, they also lose immunity
and can be sued for assisting CPS in the violation of both yours and your
child’s rights when they illegally abduct your children or enter your home
without probable cause or exigent circumstances, which are required under the
warrant clause of the 14th Amendment.




The authors of this handbook are not attorneys and do not pretend
to be attorneys.  The authors were
victims of a false report and were falsely accused by DCF in Connecticut without a proper investigation
being conducted.  The authors fought back
for 8 months against this corrupt organization whose order of the day was to
deny them their 4th, 6th and 14th Amendment
rights and to fabricate false charges without evidence.


The author’s goals are to not have another child illegally
abducted from their family; that CPS and juvenile judges start using common
sense before rushing to judgment and to conduct their investigations the same
as police in order to be constitutionally correct and legal; and that CPS MUST
by law comply with the “Warrant Clause” as required by the Constitution and the
Federal Courts whereas they are “governmental officials” and are subject to the
Constitution as are the police.  There
are NO EXCEPTIONS to the Constitution for CPS.




You as a parent or caregiver MUST know your rights and be totally
informed of what you have a legal right to have and to express, whether you are
a parent caught up in the very oppressive, abusive and many times unlawful
actions of CPS or if you have never been investigated by CPS.  Many individuals come to the wrong conclusion
that the parents must have been abusive or neglectful for CPS to investigate,
this is just a myth.  The fact of the
matter is that over 80% of the calls phoned into CPS are false and bogus.


Another myth is that CPS can conduct an investigation in your home
without your consent and speak to your child without your consent.  CPS employees will lie to you and tell you
they do not need your consent.  The fact
of the matter is they absolutely need your consent to come into your home and
speak with your children.  If there is no
“exigent circumstances” (imminent danger) to your children with “probable
cause” (credible witness) to support a warrant, CPS anywhere in the United
States cannot lawfully enter your home and speak with you and your
children.  In fact, it is illegal.  You can sue the social worker and the police
who assist them and both lose immunity from being sued.


If CPS lies to the AAG and the Judge to get a warrant/order and
you can prove it, that also is a 4th and 14th Amendment
rights violation which is a civil rights violation under § 1983 and conspiracy
against rights covered under § 1985.  If
a CPS official knocks on your door, has no legal warrant, you refuse
them entry, and the worker then threatens you with calling the police, this is
also illegal and unlawful and both lose immunity.  This is coercion, threatening and
intimidation tactics even if the police only got the door open so CPS official
can gain entry.  Both can be sued.


Remember, CPS officials will not tell you your rights.  In fact, they are going to do everything in
their power including lying to you and threatening you with police presence
telling you that you have to let them in.
The police may even threaten you to let CPS in because you are
obstructing an investigation.  Many
police officers do not realize that CPS MUST comply with the warrant clause of
the 14th Amendment or be sued for violating it.


CPS does not have a legal right to conduct an investigation of
alleged child abuse or neglect in a private home without your consent.  In fact removing a child from your home without
your consent even for several hours is a “seizure” under federal law.  Speaking to your children without your
consent is also a “seizure” under the law.
If CPS cannot support a warrant and show that the child is in immanent
danger along with probable cause, CPS cannot enter your home and speak with
your children.  Remember, anonymous calls
into CPS are NEVER probable cause under the Warrant Clause.  And even if they got a name and number from
the reporter on the end of the phone, that also does not support probable cause
under the law.  CPS must by law,
investigate the caller to determine if he or she is the person who they say
they are and that what they said is credible.
The call alone, standing by itself, is insufficient to support probable
cause under the law.  Many bogus calls
are made by disgruntle neighbors, ex-spouses, or someone wanting to get revenge.  So CPS needs to show the same due diligence
as the police to obtain sworn statements.
All CPS agencies across the country have an exaggerated view of their
power.  What you think is or is not abuse
or neglect, CPS has a totally different definition.  The definition is whatever they want it to
be.  DCF will lie to you, mark my word, and
tell you that they can do anything they want and have total immunity.  Tell that to the half dozen social workers currently
sitting in jail in California,
they lied to the judge.  We will discuss
in further detail what CPS and the police can and can not do.







The United States Supreme Court has
stated: “There is a presumption that fit parents act in their children’s
best interests, Parham v. J. R.,
442 U. S. 584, 602
; there is normally no reason or compelling interest
for the State to inject itself into the private realm of the family to further
question fit parents’ ability to make the best decisions regarding their
children. Reno
v. Flores
, 507 U. S.
292, 304
.  The state may not
interfere in child rearing decisions when a fit parent is available. Troxel v. Granville, 530 U.S. 57 (2000).


Consequently, the State of Connecticut or
any state can not use the “best interest of the child” standard to substitute
its judgment for a fit parent and parroting that term is “legally insufficient”
to use in  the court to force parents to
follow some arbitrary standard, case plan or horse and pony show.  The State cannot usurp a fit parent’s
decision making related to parental spending for their children, i.e. child
support without either a demonstration the parent is unfit or there is proven
harm to the child.  In other words, the
state and Child Protective Services can not impose a standard of living dealing
with the rearing of children.  When they
violate this fundamental right, they would be intruding on the family’s life
and liberty interest.  The 1st
Amendment bars such action because the rearing of children and the best
interest of children is often based on ones religious beliefs, i.e. the
separation of church and state.  By the
state imposing any standard of living or the rearing of children, they are
putting forth a religious standard by their actions i.e. how you act, what to
feed the child, how to dress the child, whether or not to home school and so
on.  The courts and the state lack
jurisdiction on what goes on in the house even though they disagree with the
choices made by parents, the Plaintiffs term this “parental immunity.”  It’s none of the state’s business on how you
are to raise your children.  In other
words, they can not falsely accuse parents of abuse or neglect just because
they disagree with the method of child rearing or the standard in which they


State Law provisions mandate that the
State invade the family, through the judiciary, to examine, evaluate, determine
and conclude the terms and nature of the interpersonal relationship, spousal
roles, spousal conduct, parental decision making, parenting conduct, parental
spending, economic standard of living, occupations, education, savings, assets,
charitable contributions and most importantly the intimate emotional,
psychological and physical details of the parties and family during their
marriage granting the judiciary a broad range of discretion to apply a property
stripping statute with a standard of equity.
This would be an abuse of the judicial power and the judicial system to
intrude into U.S.
citizen’s lives and violate their privacy rights.  It is not the state’s right or jurisdiction
to examine the day to day decisions and choices of citizens and then sit there
in judgment and then force parents to follow conflicting standards with threat
of harm for noncompliance i.e. abduction of children.


The United States Constitution’s
Fourteenth Amendment contains a recognized Right to Privacy.  This fundamental Right to Privacy encompasses
the Privacy Protected Zone of Parenting.
The Plaintiff asserts that DCF policy and Connecticut General Statutes
impermissibly infringe the Federal Right to Privacy to the extent they mandate
the parent to support his or her children beyond a standard to prevent harm to
them.  They substitute the State s
judgment for the parent’s judgment as to the best interest of his or her children.  The challenged statutes do not mandate a
review to determine if demonstrable harm exists to the children in determining
the amount of support that the parent must provide.


The State is not permitted and lacks
jurisdiction to determine care and maintenance, i.e. spending, i.e. child discipline,
decisions of a fit parent based on his or her income in an intact marriage
other than to prevent harm to a child.
There is no basis for the State to have a statute that mandates a fit
divorced parent should support their child to a different standard, i.e. the
standard of the best interests of a child.
Furthermore, the State must not so mandate absent a demonstration that
the choice of support provided by the parent has resulted in harm to his or her


The U.S. Supreme Court has mandated that
the standard for the State to intrude in parenting decisions relating to
grandparent visitation is no longer best interests of the child. Troxel
v. Granville
, 530 U.S. 57; 120
S.Ct. 2054 (2000
).  This court
should recognize the changed standard of State intrusion in parenting should
also apply to the context of parents care, control, and maintenance, i.e.
spending, i.e. child discipline decisions, on behalf of his or her children.


In conclusion, unless CPS and the Attorney
General’s Office can provide the requisite proof of parental unfitness, you’re State,
CPS, the Attorney General’s Office and the Juvenile Courts can’t make on behalf
of the parents or for the child unless the parent is adjudicated unfit.
And as long as there is one fit parent, CPS and the Attorney General’s Office
can not interfere or remove a single child.


Protection Threats to Take Children Ruled Illegal

By Ofelia Casillas and Matt O’Connor

Chicago Tribune
Staff Reporters

A federal judge ruled that Illinoisfamilies were
deprived of their constitutional rights when state child welfare officials
threatened to separate parents from their children during abuse investigations.

In a decision made public Monday, U.S.
District Judge Rebecca Pallmeyer found “ample evidence” that families
suffered emotional and psychological injuries because the separations lasted
“for more than a brief or temporary period.”

The judge didn’t fault the Illinois
Department of Children and Family Services for erring on the side of caution in
such cases, but she held that parents had a right to know the length of the
expected separations and how to contest the restrictions.

In telephone interviews with the Tribune,
families described being shocked, paranoid and frightened by the allegations
that some thought would result in them losing their children. Parents felt that
caseworkers assumed them to be guilty.

A father from Skokie
spent almost a year away from his family, and the effects of the rift that
developed between them remain years later.

“I don’t think it can ever be
repaired. We are all broken up; we are not bonded the way that we used to
be,” said the father, who requested that he only be identified by his
first name, Patrick. “I cannot get over what they did to me. It devastated
my whole entire life. I can never be the same again.”

The ruling shows the dilemma facing the
oft-criticized DCFS in its charge to protect children from harm but also keep
families together when possible.

At issue are safety plans, part of the
wholesale reforms instituted by DCFS after the public uproar over the horrific
1993 death of 3-year-old Joseph Wallace, who was killed by his mentally ill
mother after he was returned to her by the state.

In her decision, Pallmeyer essentially
held that DCFS had gone too far in protecting children and had eroded the
constitutional rights of parents.

The safety plans are supposedly voluntary
agreements by parents in most cases to leave their home indefinitely or stay
under constant supervision after investigations into child abuse or neglect are
launched, often based on tips to DCFS.

But most of the families who testified at
a 22-day hearing in 2002 and 2003 said the investigators threatened to take
away their children unless they agreed to the safety plans.

“When an investigator expressly or
implicitly conveys that failure to accept a plan will result in the removal of
the children for more than a brief or temporary period of time, it constitutes
a threat sufficient to deem the family’s agreement coerced, and to implicate
due process rights,” Pallmeyer wrote in the 59-page opinion.

“Significantly, [DCFS] has not
identified a single family that, faced with such an express or implied threat
of protective custody, chose to reject the plan,” the judge said.

Pallmeyer gave DCFS 60 days to develop
“constitutionally adequate procedures” for families to contest the
safety plans.

Diane Redleaf, one of the plaintiffs’
attorneys, said about 10 families were involved in the court case, but that
Pallmeyer’s decision would affect thousands of families who agree to safety
plans each year.

“Instead of protecting children, the
state is actually destroying families and hurting children,” Redleaf said.

Diane Jackson, a DCFS spokeswoman, said
Pallmeyer’s review of safety plans was limited to 2002 and before and didn’t
consider changes since then.

“We have definitely made
changes,” said Jackson,
declining to be more specific until DCFS can report to Pallmeyer.

Cook County Public Guardian Robert Harris
applauded Pallmeyer’s decision.

No real due process’

“It’s abridging both the children’s
and the parents’ rights to have that amorphous safety plan that could go on
forever,” he said. “There is no real due process. There is no
[procedure] to complain unless you have some money to hire a lawyer.”

This is the second significant ruling by
Pallmeyer to go against DCFS stemming from the same lawsuit. In 2001, she found
that DCFS investigators often made findings of child abuse on little evidence,
unfairly blacklisting professionals accused of wrongdoing. The judge extended
new protections to teachers, day-care providers, nannies, social workers and
others who work directly with children. Those protections are intended to keep
the falsely accused from losing their jobs.

As part of assessing whether a child is in
danger, DCFS specialists determine whether one of 15 safety factors is present,
including if a household member is violent or sexual abuse is suspected. For
DCFS to determine a child to be unsafe requires the finding of only one safety
factor, some of which require little or no evidence of risk of harm–a fact
that drew the criticism of plaintiffs.

But Pallmeyer defended that practice,
concluding that “it is not improper for DCFS to err on the side of caution
given the significant state interest in protecting children from harm.”

But the plans can’t remain in place
indefinitely, she held.

According to the decision, one day-care
worker accused of improperly touching a child was forced out of his own home
for nearly a year before a judge at an administrative hearing cleared him of
the charges–based in part on information available early on.

Patrick, the father from Skokie,
spent 11 months away from his three children and his wife, missing their
birthdays and a wedding anniversary.

Even though the allegations concerned his
workplace, a DCFS investigator threatened to put his children–a boy, then 10,
and two girls, then 12 and 13–in a foster home unless he moved out of their
home, Patrick said Monday.

He went home, grabbed a few belongings and
later moved in with his sister inChicago.

“I was put out on the street,”
said Patrick, crying. “I was just totally violated.”

It wasn’t until a month later that he was
able to explain the circumstances to his children after the caseworker allowed
a visit.

Heart-wrenching goodbyes

Soon, the father was able to see his
children at church and later had supervised visits. The goodbyes were
heart-wrenching, Patrick recalled.

“I would have to come here after my
wife got off work, and then I would have to leave,” the father said.
“It was really emotional every time I left, every single night. And my
kids didn’t understand why I had to leave. They were very confused and very
hurt. They still are.”

At the time, his son was acting up at
school. His daughters cried in class, their grades falling, he said.

After he was cleared of the allegations in
December 2001, Patrick was unable to find a job in child care, despite about a
decade of experience. The lengthy separation changed his relationship with his
family, he said.

“I never got any type of apology, any
type of thing to say your kids might be messed up, let us give you
counseling,” Patrick said of DCFS.

In another case, James Redlin, a teacher,
was accused by a passenger of inappropriately touching his son, Joey, then 6,
who suffers from a mild form of autism, during a Metra train ride to the Field Museum
in the summer of 2000.

Joey’s mother, Susan Redlin, said Monday
that her husband was tickling their son, carrying the boy on his lap and
holding him up to look out the window.

DCFS required that the father not act as
an independent caretaker for his son until the case was resolved, effectively
leaving the family “prisoners” in their own home, according to the
court ruling.

Joey’s mother, responsible for supervising
her son under the safety plan, has multiple sclerosis and uses a wheelchair.
“My husband and son could not be out of my sight,” she said.

The husband was cleared of wrongdoing by
September. Until then, father and son were forced to forgo trail hikes,
carnival adventures, movie outings–and plans to teach Joey how to ride a bike.

“It made Jim awfully leery of being
alone with Joey, even hugging him, even holding hands,” Susan Redlin said.
“That was the worst. If I enjoy hugging my [son], am I a pervert?”

Just Sunday, Susan Redlin said, she was
out with her son and was about to swat him jokingly on the rear when she
stopped herself.

“I did not do that,” she said.
“What if someone is watching?”



The Social Worker At Your Door: 10 Helpful Hints

By Christopher J. Klicka, Senior Counsel for the

Home School Legal Defense Association

More and more frequently, home schoolers are turned in
on child abuse hotlines to social service agencies.  Families who do not like home schoolers can
make an anonymous phone call to the child abuse hotline and fabricate abuse
stories about home schoolers.  The social
worker then has an obligation to investigate.  Each state has a different policy for social
workers, but generally they want to come into the family’s home and speak with
the children separately. To allow either of these to occur involves great risk
to the family.

The home school parent, however, should be very
cautious when an individual identifies himself as a social worker. In fact,
there are several tips that a family should follow:


  1. Always
    get the business card of the social worker.  This way, when you call your attorney or
    Home School Legal Defense Association, if you are a member, the attorney
    will be able to contact the social worker on your behalf. If the situation
    is hostile, HSLDA members should immediately call our office and hand the
    phone out the door so an HSLDA lawyer can talk to the social worker.  We have a 24 hour emergency number.
  2. Find
    out the allegations.  Do not fall
    for the frequently used tactic of the social worker who would tell the
    unsuspecting victims that they can only give you the allegations after
    they have come into your home and spoken to your child separately.  You generally have the right to know the
    allegations without allowing them in your home.
  3. Never
    let the social worker in your house without a warrant or court order.  All the cases that you have heard about
    where children are snatched from the home usually involve families waiving
    their Fourth Amendment right to be free from such searches and seizures by
    agreeing to allow the social worker to come inside the home.  A warrant requires “probable
    cause” which does not include an anonymous tip or a mere suspicion.  This is guaranteed under the Fourth
    Amendment of the U.S. Constitution as interpreted by the courts.  (In extremely rare situations, police may
    enter a home without a warrant if there are exigent circumstances, i.e.,
    police are aware of immediate danger or harm to the child.)

However, in some instances,
social workers or police threaten to use force to come into a home.  If you encounter a situation which escalates
to this level, record the conversation if at all possible, but be sure to
inform the police officer or social worker that you are doing this.  If entry is going to be made under duress you
should say and do the following: “I am closing my front door, but it is
unlocked.  I will not physically prevent
you from entering, and I will not physically resist you in any way.  But you do not have my permission to enter.  If you open my door and enter, you do so
without my consent, and I will seek legal action for an illegal entry.”

  1. Never
    let the social worker talk to your children alone without a court order.  On nearly every other incident concerning
    our members, HSLDA has been able to keep the social worker away from the
    children.  On a few occasions,
    social workers have been allowed to talk with children, particularly where
    severe allegations are involved.  In
    these instances, an attorney, chosen by the parent, has been present.  At other times, HSLDA had children stand
    by the door and greet the social worker, but not be subject to any
  2. Tell
    the official that you will call back after you speak with your attorney.  Call your attorney or HSLDA, if you are a
  3. Ignore
    intimidations. Normally, social workers are trained to bluff.  They will routinely threaten to acquire a
    court order, knowing full well that there is no evidence on which to
    secure an order. In 98 percent of the contacts that HSLDA handles, the
    threats turn out to be bluffs.  However, it is always important to secure
    an attorney in these matters, since there are occasions where social
    workers are able to obtain a court order with flimsy evidence. HSLDA
    members should call our office in such situations.
  4. Offer
    to give the officials the following supporting evidence:
    1. a statement from your doctor, after he has
      examined your children, if the allegations involve some type of physical
    2. references from individuals who can vouch for
      your being good parents;
    3. evidence of the legality of your home school
      program.  If your home school is an
      issue, HSLDA attorneys routinely assist member families by convincing
      social workers of this aspect of an investigation.
  5. Bring
    a tape recorder and/or witnesses to any subsequent meeting.  Often times HSLDA will arrange a meeting
    between the social worker and our member family after preparing the
    parents on what to discuss and what not to discuss.  The discussion at the meeting should be
    limited to the specific allegations and you should avoid telling them
    about past events beyond what they know.  Usually, anonymous tips are all they have
    to go on, which is not sufficient to take someone to court. What you give
    them can and will be used against you.
  6. Inform
    your church, and put the investigation on your prayer chain. Over and over
    again, HSLDA has seen God deliver home schoolers from this scary scenario.
  7. Avoid
    potential situations that could lead to a child welfare investigation.
    1. Conduct public relations with your immediate
      neighbors and acquaintances regarding the legality and success of home
    2. Do not spank children in public.
    3. Do not spank someone else’s child unless they
      are close Christian friends.
    4. Avoid leaving young children at home alone.

In order for a social worker to get a warrant to come
and enter a home and interview children separately, he is normally required, by
both statute and the U.S. Constitution, to prove that there is some
“cause.”  This is a term that
is synonymous with the term “probable cause”.  “Probable cause” or cause shown is
reliable evidence that must be corroborated by other evidence if the tip is
anonymous. In other words, an anonymous tip alone and mere suspicion is not
enough for a social worker to obtain a warrant.

There have been some home-schooled families who have
been faced with a warrant even though there was not probable cause.  HSLDA has been able to overturn these in court
so that the order to enter the home was never carried out.  Home
School Legal Defense
Association is committed to defending every member family who is being
investigated by social workers, provided the allegations involve home
schooling.  In instances when the
allegations have nothing to do with home schooling, HSLDA will routinely
counsel most member families on how to meet with the social worker and will
talk to the social worker to try to resolve the situation.  If it cannot be resolved, which it normally
can be in most instances by HSLDA’s involvement, the family is responsible for
hiring their own attorney.

HSLDA is beginning to work with states to reform the
child welfare laws to guarantee more freedom for parents and better protection
for their parental rights.  HSLDA will be
sending out Alerts to its members in various states where such legislation is
drafted and submitted as a bill.

For further information on
how to deal with social workers, HSLDA recommends Home Schooling: The Right
, which was written with the intention of informing home school
parents of their rights in order to prevent them from becoming a statistic.  Federal statistics have shown that up to 60
percent of children removed from homes, upon later review, should never have
been removed.  The child welfare system
is out of control, and we need to be prepared.  To obtain The Right Choice or join the
Home School Legal Defense Association, call 540-338-5600, or write HSLDA, P.O. Box 3000, Purcellville,



The Fourth
Amendment’s Impact on Child Abuse Investigations

Michael P. Farris

President, Patrick
Henry College

General Counsel, Home
School Legal Defense
Association (HSLDA)

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth
Circuit said it best, “The government’s interest in the welfare of
children embraces not only protecting children from physical abuse, but also
protecting children’s interest in the privacy and dignity of their homes and in
the lawfully exercised authority of their parents.” Calabretta v.
, 189 F.3d 808 (1999).

This statement came in a case which held that social
workers who, in pursuit of a child abuse investigation, invaded a family home
without a warrant violate the Fourth Amendment rights of both children and
parents. Upon remand for the damages phase of the trial, the social workers,
the police officers, and the governments that employed them settled this civil
rights case for $150,000.

The facts in the Calabretta case are fairly typical
for the kind of situation we see almost daily at Home School Legal Defense
Association. An anonymous call came into a hotline manned by social workers in Yolo County, California.
The tipster said that he/she had heard a child’s voice coming from the
Calabretta home or property which cried out, “No, daddy, no.” This
same tipster said that an unnamed neighbor had told her that she had heard a
child cry out from the back yard, “No, no, no” on another occasion.

The tipster added that the family was home schooling
their children and noted that the family was very religious. During the course
of discovery in the civil rights case, we found that the social worker listed
the home schooling and religious information not as merely general background
facts but as “risk factors” in her internal reports.

The social worker came to investigate the matter four
days after receiving the call. Acting on the advice HSLDA gives all its
members, Mrs. Calabretta refused to let the social worker into the home because
she did not have a warrant.

The social worker returned to her office and requested
that another worker be sent to follow up while she was on vacation. Since this
was not done, ten days later, she returned to the home with a police officer
and demanded that Mrs. Calabretta allow them to enter. The police officer
informed Mrs. Calabretta that they did not need a warrant for any child abuse
investigation and when she still refused to allow entry he told her that they
would enter with or without her consent.

Not wanting a physical confrontation with a police
officer, Mrs. Calabretta opened the door and allowed the social worker and the
police officer to enter. A partial strip search was done of one of the young
Calabretta children, and an interview was conducted with the family’s 12 year
old daughter.

The social worker, police officer, and their
government agencies moved to dismiss claiming that there was no violation of
any clearly established constitutional right. Both the federal district court
and the Ninth Circuit disagreed with these arguments.

Contrary to the assumption of hundreds of social
workers that we have interacted with at HSLDA, the Ninth Circuit held that the
Fourth Amendment applies just as much to a child abuse investigation as it does
to any criminal or other governmental investigation. Social workers are not
exempt from the requirements of the Fourth Amendment when they act alone. They
are not exempt from its rules if they are accompanied by a police officer. And
police officers are not exempt from the requirement even if all they do is get
the front door open for the social worker.

What are the requirements of the Fourth Amendment?

The general rule is that unreasonable searches and seizures
are banned. But the second part of the rule is the most important in this
context. All warrantless searches are presumptively unreasonable.

There are two and only two recognized exceptions to
the requirement of having a warrant for the conduct of a child abuse

  1. The
    adult in charge of the premises gives the social worker his/her free and
    voluntary consent to enter the home.
  2. The
    social worker possesses evidence that meets two standards:

(a) it satisfies the legal
standard of establishing probable cause; and

(b) the evidence demonstrates
that there are exigent circumstances relative to the health of the children.


If a police officer says, “If you don’t let us in
your home we will break down your door”—a parent who then opens the door
has not given free and voluntary consent. If a social worker says, “If you
don’t let me in the home I will take your children away”—a parent who then
opens the door has not given free and voluntary consent. Threats to go get a
“pick up order” negate consent. Any type of communication which
conveys the idea to the parent that they have no realistic alternative but to
allow entry negates any claim that the entry was lawfully gained through the
channel of consent.

It should be remembered that consent is only one of
the three valid ways to gain entry: (warrant, consent, or probable cause and
exigent circumstances.) There is nothing improper about saying, “We have a
warrant you must let us in” or “We have solid evidence that your
child is in extreme danger, you must let us in.” Such statements indicate
that the social worker is relying on some theory other than consent to gain
lawful entry. Of course, the social worker must indeed have a warrant if such a
claim is made. And, in similar fashion, if a claim is made that the entry is
being made upon probable cause of exigent circumstances, then that must also be
independently true.

Probable Cause & Exigent Circumstances

The Fourth Amendment does not put a barrier in the way
of a social worker who has reliable evidence that a child is in imminent
danger. For example, if a hotline call comes in and says, “My name is
Mildred Smith, here is my address and phone number. I was visiting my
grandchildren this morning and I discovered that one of my grandchildren, Johnny,
age 5, is being locked in his bedroom without food for days at a time, and he
looked pale and weak to me”—the social worker certainly has evidence of
exigent circumstances and is only one step away from having probable cause.

Since the report has been received over the telephone,
it is possible that the tipster is an imposter and not the child’s grandmother.
A quick verification of the relationship can be made in a variety of ways and
once verified, the informant, would satisfy the legal test of reliability which
is necessary to establish probable cause.

However, a case handled by HSLDA in San Bernadino
County, California, illustrates that even a grandparent cannot be considered a
per se reliable informant.

A grandfather called in a hotline complaint with two
totally separate allegations of sexual abuse. The first claim was that his son,
who was a boarder in an unrelated family’s home, was sexually abusing the
children in that home. The second claim concerned his daughter and her husband.
The claim here was that the husband was sexually abusing their children. These
were two separate allegations in two separate homes.

The social workers went to the home of the unrelated
family first to investigate the claims about the tipster’s son. They found the
claims to be utterly spurious. They had gained entry into the home based on the
consent of the children’s parents.

The following day they went to the home of the
tipster’s daughter. The daughter had talked to her brother in the meantime and
knew that her father had made a false report about him. When the social workers
arrived at her home, she informed them that they were in pursuit of a report
made by a known false reporter—her father. Moreover, she informed the social
workers that she had previously obtained a court order requiring her father to
stay away from her family and children based on his prior acts of harassment.

Despite the fact that the social workers knew that
their reporter had been previously found to be unreliable—they insisted that
they would enter the family home without consent.

In a civil rights suit we brought against the social
workers and police officers, they settled the matter with a substantial payment
to the family in satisfaction of their claims that the entry was in violation
of their civil rights because the evidence in their possession did not satisfy
the standard of probable cause.

It is not enough to have information that the children
are in some form of serious danger. The evidence must also pass a test of
reliability that our justice system calls probable cause.

In the first appellate case I ever handled in this
area, H.R. v. State Department of Human Resources, 612 So. 2d 477 (Ala.
Ct. App. 1992
); the court held that an anonymous tip standing alone never
amounts to probable cause. The Calabretta court held the same thing, as
have numerous other decisions which have faced the issue directly.

On the surface, this places the social worker in a
dilemma. On the one hand, state statutes, local regulations, and the perception
of federal mandates seem to require a social worker to conduct an investigation
on the basis of an anonymous tip. But, on the other hand, the courts are
holding in case after case that if you do enter a home based on nothing more
than an anonymous tip you are violating the Fourth Amendment rights of those
being investigated. What do you do?

The answer is: Pay attention to the details of each
set of the rules.

First and foremost, keep in mind that the ultimate
federal mandate is the Constitution of the United States. No federal law can
condition your receipt of federal funds on the basis that you violate some
other provision of the Constitution. South
v. Dole, 514 U.S. 549 (1995).

Second, realize that the mandate to conduct an
investigation does not require you to enter every home. Even if your rules or
statutes seem to expressly require entry into every home, such rules and
statutes must be construed in a manner consistent with the Constitution. The
net requirement is this: if your laws and regulations seem to require entry
into every home, then social workers should be instructed to add this caveat:
“when it is constitutional for me to do so.”

Obviously, nothing in the Constitution prevents a
social worker from going to a home and simply asking to come in. If the parent
or guardian says “yes”, there is no constitutional violation
whatsoever—provided that there was no coercion.

This covers the vast majority of investigations. The
overwhelming response of people being investigated is to allow the social
worker to enter the home and conduct whatever investigation is reasonably

The second alternative is to seek a warrant or entry
order. The Fourth Amendment itself spells out the evidence required for a
warrant or entry order. No warrant shall issue but on probable cause. The
United States Supreme Court has held that courts may not use a different
standard other than probable cause for the issuance of such orders. Griffin
v. Wisconsin,
483 U.S.
868 (1987

If a court issues a warrant based on an uncorroborated
anonymous tip, the warrant will not survive a judicial challenge in the higher
courts. Anonymous tips are never probable cause.

This was the essence of the decision in the case of H.R.
v. Alabama
. In that case, the social worker took the position that she had
to enter every home no matter what the allegation.

In court, I gave her some improbable allegations
involving anonymous tipsters angry at government officials demanding that
social workers investigate these officials for abusing their own children. Her
position was that she had to enter the home of all those who were reported. The
trial judge sustained her position and held that the mere receipt of a report
of child abuse or neglect was sufficient for the issuance of an entry order.
However, the trial judge’s decision was reversed by the Alabama Court of
Appeals. That court held that the Alabama
statute’s requirement of “cause shown” had to be read in the light of
the Fourth Amendment. An anonymous tip standing alone did not meet the standard
of cause shown.

If a social worker receives an anonymous tip, he/she
can always go to the home and ask permission for entry. If permission is
denied, then the social worker—if he/she believes it is justified—can seek
independent sources to attempt to verify the tipster’s information. For
example, if a tipster says, that the child is covered with bruises from head to
toe, contact could be made with the child’s teacher to see if he/she has ever
seen such bruises. If the teacher says “Yes, I see them all the time,”
then the report has been corroborated and upon that kind of evidence the social
worker probably has the basis for either the issuance of a warrant or an entry
on the basis of exigent circumstances if it is not possible to get a warrant in
a reasonable time.

Policy Implications

It is my opinion that the welfare of children is absolutely consistent with our
constitutional requirements. Children are not well-served if they are subjected
to investigations based on false allegations. Little children can be traumatized
by investigations in ways that are unintended by the social worker. However, to
a small child all they know is that a strange adult is taking off their
clothing while their mother is sobbing in the next room in the presence of an
armed police officer. This does not seem to a child to be a proper invasion of
their person—quite different, for example, from an examination by a doctor when
their mother is present and cooperating.

The misuse of anonymous tips are well-known. Personal
vendettas, neighborhood squabbles, disputes on the Little League field, are
turned into maliciously false allegations breathed into a hotline. From my
perspective, there is no reason whatsoever in any case, for a report to be
anonymous. There is every reason to keep the reports confidential. The
difference between an anonymous report and a confidential report is obvious. In
an anonymous report the social worker or police officer does not know who the
reporter is and has no evidence of the reliability of their report. There is no
policy reason for keeping social workers or police officers in the dark.

On the other hand, there is every reason to keep the
name of the reporter confidential. There are a great number of reasons that the
person being investigated shouldn’t know who made the call.

Moreover, precious resources are diverted from
children who are truly in need of protection when social workers are chasing
false allegations breathed into a telephone by a malicious anonymous tipster.
If such a tipster is told: “May we please have your name, address, and
phone number? We will keep this totally confidential,” it is highly
probable that the vast majority of reports made in good faith will give such
information. It is also probable that those making maliciously false allegations
will simply hang up.

Children are well-served when good faith allegations
are investigated. They are equally well-served if malicious allegations can be
screened out without the need for invasion.





You MUST understand that CPS will not give
you or your spouse any Miranda warning nor do they have too.  If CPS shows up at your door and tells you
they need to speak with you and your children, you have the legal right to deny
them entry under the 4th and 14th Amendment.  But before they leave, you should bring your
children to the door but never open it, instead show them the children are not
in imminent danger and that they are fine.
If you do not at least show them your children, they could come back
with an unlawful and unconstitutional warrant even though your children are not
in imminent danger.


Everything CPS sees and hears is written
down and eventually given to the AAG for your possible prosecution.  You also need to know that if the focus of
the investigation is on your spouse or significant other you may think you may
not be charged with anything and that you are the non-offending spouse, WRONG.  If your spouse gets charged with anything,
you are probably going to get charged with allowing it to happen.  So if a spouse lies and makes things up,
he/she is also confessing that he allowed whatever he/she alleges.


What you say will more then likely not be
written down the way you said it or meant it.
For example, a female CPS worker asks the wife, “Does your husband yell
at the children?” your response could be once in a while.  Then they ask, “Does he yell at you and argue
with you.  Your response could be “yes we
argue sometimes and he may raise his voice.”
The next question is, “Does your husband drink alcohol?”  Your response could be “yes he has several
drinks a week.”  Now let’s translate
those benign responses and see what CPS may write in her paperwork.  “When the father drinks, he yells at children
and wife and wife is a victim of domestic violence.”  This is a far cry on what really took place
in that conversation.  CPS routinely will
take what you say out of context and actually lie in their reports in order to
have a successful prosecution of their case.
They have an end game in mine and they will misrepresent the facts and
circumstances surrounding what may or may not have happened.


Something similar happened to the authors
where DCF employees lied in front of the judge.
They said the husband was a victim of domestic violence even though all five
members of the family stated clearly that there was never any domestic
violence.  The husband would like to know
when this occurred because it did not happen when he was there.  They will also misrepresent the condition of
your home even if you were sick or injured and did not have a chance to
straighten anything out.  CPS will not
put anything exculpatory in the record so anyone that reads her notes will read
that the house was a mess and cluttered.
Never give them a chance to falsify the record or twist your words.  The best advice we can offer is before
letting any CPS official in your home, if you choose to do so, is to tell them
you want your attorney there when they come and schedule a time for the meeting.


Remember, CPS could care less about your
rights or your children’s constitutional rights.  Removing a child from a safe home is more
harmful then most alleged allegations as stated by many judges.  They will lie and say they have to come in and
you have to comply.  Remember CPS has no
statutory authority to enter your home when no crime has been committed.  They are trained to lie to you to get in any
way they can and this comes from interviewing employees at DCF.  Do not sign anything or agree to anything even
if you are not guilty and you agree to go through some horse and pony
show.  That will be used against you as
if you admitted to it.  The case plan or
whatever they call it in your state is essentially a plea of guilty to the
charges.  If you agree to it and sign it,
you are admitting to the abuse and/or neglect allegations and to the contents
of the record.  You are assisting them in
their case against you and in your own prosecution if you sign their agreements,
case plan or menu.  Demand a trial at the
very first hearing and never stipulate to anything.  Force them to prove you are guilty.  Do not willingly admit to it by signing a
case plan.  Due to ignorance and/or
incompetence, your attorney may tell you to sign their agreement so you can get
your children back sooner.  Do not believe
it.  This will only speed up the process
of terminating your parental rights.







Yes they are.  The Fourth Amendment is applicable to DCF
investigators in the context of an investigation of alleged abuse or neglect as
are all “government officials.”  This
issue is brought out best in Walsh v. Erie County
Dept. of Job and Family Services, 3:01-cv-7588
.  If it is unlawful and unconstitutional for
the police who are government officials, likewise it is for CPS employees who
are also government officials.


The social workers, Darnold and Brown, argued
that “the Fourth Amendment was not applicable to the activities of their social
worker employees.”  The social workers claimed,
“entries into private homes by child welfare workers involve neither searches
nor seizures under the Fourth Amendment, and thus can be conducted without
either a warrant or probable cause to believe that a child is at risk of
imminent harm.”  The court disagreed and
ruled: “Despite the defendant’s exaggerated view of their powers,
the Fourth Amendment applies to them, as it does to all other officers and
agents of the state whose request to enter, however benign or well-intentioned,
are met by a closed door.”  The Court
also stated “The Fourth Amendment’s prohibition on unreasonable searches and
seizures applies whenever an investigator, be it a police officer, a DCF
employee, or any other agent of the state, responds to an alleged instance of
child abuse, neglect, or dependency.” (Emphasis added)  Darnold and Brown’s first argument, shot down
by the court.  The social workers then
argued that there are exceptions to the Fourth Amendment, and that the
situation with the Walsh children was an “emergency.”  Further, the “Defendants argue their entry
into the home, even absent voluntary consent, was reasonable under the
circumstances.”  They point to the
anonymous complaint about clutter on the front porch; and the plaintiff’s
attempt to leave.


These circumstances, the
defendants argue, created an ‘emergency situation’ that led Darnold and Brown
reasonably to believe the Walsh children were in danger of imminent harm.  (This is the old “emergency” excuse that has
been used for years by social workers.)  The
Court again disagreed and ruled: “There is nothing inherently unusual or
dangerous about cluttered premises, much less anything about such vaguely
described conditions that could manifest imminent or even possible danger or
harm to young children.  If household
‘clutter’ justifies warrantless entry and threats of removal of children and
arrest or citation of their parents, few families are secure and few homes are
safe from unwelcome and unjustified intrusion by state officials and officers.”  The Court went on to rule, “They have failed
to show that any exigency that justifies warrantless entry was necessary to
protect the welfare of the plaintiff’s children.  In this case, a rational jury could find that
‘no evidence points to the opposite conclusion’ and a lack of ‘sufficient
exigent circumstances to relieve the state actors here of the burden of
obtaining a warrant.’  The social workers’
second argument, shot down by the court.


The social workers, Darnold and
Brown, then argued that they are obligated under law to investigate any
reported case of child abuse, and that supersedes the Fourth Amendment.  The social workers argued, “Against these
fundamental rights, the defendants contend that Ohio’s statutory framework for learning
about and investigation allegations of child abuse and neglect supersede their
obligations under the Fourth Amendment.
They point principally to § 2151.421 of the Ohio Revised code as
authority for their warrantless entry into and search of the plaintiff’s
home.  That statute imposes a duty on
certain designated professionals and persons who work with children or provide
child care to report instances of apparent child abuse or neglect.”  This is the old “mandatory reporter” excuse.


The Court disagreed and ruled: “The defendant’s
argument that the duty to investigate created by § 2151.421(F)(1) exempts them
from the Fourth Amendment misses the mark because, not having received a report
described in § 2151.421(A)(1)(b), they were not, and could not have been,
conducting an investigation pursuant to § 2151.421(F)(1).”  The social worker’s third argument, shot down
by the court.


The Court continues with their chastisement of the social
workers: “There can be no doubt that the state can and should protect the
welfare of children who are at risk from acts of abuse and neglect.  There likewise can be no doubt that occasions
arise calling for immediate response, even without prior judicial
approval.  But those instances are the
exception.  Otherwise child welfare
workers would have a free pass into any home in which they have an anonymous
report or poor housekeeping, overcrowding, and insufficient medical care and,
thus perception that children may be at some risk.”  The Court continues: “The anonymous phone
call in this case did not constitute a ‘report’ of child abuse or
neglect.”  The social workers, Darnold
and Brown, claimed that they were immune from liability, claiming qualified
immunity because “they had not had training in Fourth Amendment law.”  In other words, because they thought the
Fourth Amendment did not bind them, they could not be sued for their “mistake.”


The police officers, Chandler
and Kish,
claimed that they could not be sued because they thought the social workers
were not subject to the Fourth Amendment, and they were just helping the social
workers.  The Court disagreed and ruled:
“That subjective basis for their ignorance about and actions in violation of
the Fourth Amendment does not relieve them of the consequences of that
ignorance and those actions.”  The Court
then lowers the boom by stating: “The claims of defendants Darnold, Brown, Chandler and Kish of qualified
immunity are therefore denied.”







The 9th Circuit
Court of Appeals case, Calabretta v.
Floyd, 9th Cir. (1999
) “involves whether a social worker and
a police officer were entitled to qualified immunity, for a coerced entry into
a home to investigate suspected child abuse, interrogation of a child, and
strip search of a child, conducted without a search warrant and without a
special exigency.”


The court did not agree that the
social worker and the police officer had “qualified immunity” and said, “the
facts in this case are noteworthy for the absence of emergency.”  No one was in distress.  “The police officer was there to back up the
social worker’s insistence on entry against the mother’s will, not because he
perceived any imminent danger of harm.”
And he should have known better.
Furthermore, “had the information been more alarming, had the social
worker or police officer been alarmed, had there been reason to fear imminent
harm to a child, this would be a different case, one to which we have no
occasion to speak.  A reasonable official
would understand that they could not enter the home without consent or a search


The 9th Circuit Court of
Appeals defines the law and states “In our circuit, a reasonable official would
have known that the law barred this entry.
Any government official (CPS) can be held to know that their office does
not give them unrestricted right to enter people’s homes at will.  We held in White v. Pierce County (797 F. 2d 812 (9th Cir. 1986),
a child welfare investigation case, that ‘it was settled constitutional law
that, absent exigent circumstances, police could not enter a dwelling without a
warrant even under statutory authority where probable cause existed.’  The principle that government officials cannot
coerce entry into people’s houses without a search warrant or applicability of
an established exception to the requirement of a search warrant is so well
established that any reasonable officer would know it.”


And there we have it: “Any
government official
can be held to know that their office does not give
them an unrestricted right to enter peoples’ homes at will. … The fourth
Amendment preserves the ‘right of the people to be secure in their persons,
houses … ’ without limiting that right to one kind of government official.”  (emphasis added)


In other words, parents have the
constitutional right to exercise their children’s and their 4th and
5th Amendment’s protections and should just say no to social workers
especially when they attempt to coerce or threaten to call the police so they
can conduct their investigation.  “A
social worker is not entitled to sacrifice a family’s privacy and dignity to
her own personal views on how parents ought to discipline their children.”  (The Constitution and the Bill of Rights
were written to protect the people from the government, not to protect the
government from the people.  And within
those documents, the people have the constitutional right to hold the
government accountable when it does deny its citizens their rights under the
law even if it is CPS, the police, or government agency, or local, state, or
federal government


The Court’s reasoning for this ruling was
simple and straight forward: “The reasonable expectation of privacy of
individuals in their homes includes the interests of both parents and children
in not having government officials coerce entry in violation of the Fourth
Amendment and humiliate the parents in front of the children.  An essential aspect of the privacy of the
home is the parent’s and the child’s interest in the privacy of the
relationship with each other.”






In North Hudson DYFS v. Koehler Family, filed December 18, 2000,
the Appellate court granted the emergency application on February 6, 2001, to
stay DYFS illegal entry that was granted by the lower court because DYFS in
their infinite wisdom thought it was their right to go into the Koehler home
because the children were not wearing socks in the winter or sleep in
beds.  After reviewing the briefs of all
the parties, the appellate court ruled that the order to investigate the
Koehler home was in violation of the law and must be reversed.  The Court explained, “[a]bsent some tangible
evidence of abuse or neglect, the Courts do not authorize fishing expeditions
into citizens’ houses.”  The Court went
on to say, “[m]ere parroting of the phrase ‘best interest of the child’ without
supporting facts and a legal basis is insufficient to support a Court order
based on reasonableness or any other ground.”
February 14, 2001.


In other words, a juvenile judge’s
decision on whether or not to issue a warrant is a legal one, it is not based
on “best interest of the child” or personal feeling.  The United States Supreme Court has held that
courts may not use a different standard other than probable cause for
the issuance of such orders.  Griffin v. Wisconsin, 483 U.S. 868 (1987).  If a court issues a warrant based on an
uncorroborated anonymous tip, the warrant will not survive a judicial challenge
in the higher courts.  Anonymous tips are
never probable cause.  “[I]n context of a
seizure of a child by the State during an abuse investigation . . . a court order is the equivalent of a
.”  (Emphasis added)  Tenenbaum
v. Williams, 193 F.3d 581, 602 (2nd Cir. 1999
). F.K. v. Iowa district Court for Polk County, Id.”








The decision in the case of Doe et al, v. Heck et al (No. 01-3648,
2003 US App. Lexis 7144
) will affect the manner in which law
enforcement and child protective services investigations of alleged child abuse
or neglect are conducted.  The decision
of the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals found that this practice, that
is “no prior consent” interview of a child, will ordinarily constitute a “clear
violation” of the constitutional rights of parents under the 4th and
14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.  According to the Court, the investigative
interview of a child constitutes a “search and seizure” and, when conducted on
private property without “consent, a warrant, probable cause, or exigent
circumstances,” such an interview is an unreasonable search and seizure in
violation of the rights of the parent, child, and, possibly the owner of the
private property


Considering that one
critical purpose of the early stages of an investigation is to determine
whether or not the child is in danger, and if so, from who seems to require a
high threshold level of evidence to commence the interview of a child, whether
the child is on private or public property.


“In our circuit, a reasonable official
would have known that the law barred this entry.  Any government official can be held to know
that their office does not give them an unrestricted right to enter peoples’
homes at will.  We held in White v. Pierce County a child
welfare investigation case, that ‘it was settled constitutional law that,
absent exigent circumstances, police could not enter a dwelling without a
warrant even under statutory authority where probable cause existed.’  The principle that government officials cannot
coerce entry into peoples’ houses without a search warrant or applicability of
an established exception to the requirement of a search warrant is so well
established that any reasonable officer would know it.”  “We conclude that the Warrant Clause must be
complied with.  First, none of the
exceptions to the Warrant Clause apply in this situation, including ‘exigent
circumstances coupled with probable cause,’ because there is, by definition,
time enough to apply to a magistrate for an ex parte removal order.  See
State v. Hatter, 342N.W.2d 851, 855 (Iowa 1983)
(holding the exigent circumstances exception to the Warrant Clause only applies
when ‘an immediate major crisis in the performance of duty afforded neither
time nor opportunity to apply to a magistrate.’).  Second, as noted by the Second Circuit, ‘[I]n
context of a seizure of a child by the State during an abuse investigation . .
. a court order is the equivalent of a warrant.’  Tenenbaum
v. Williams, 193 F.3d 581, 602 (2nd Cir. 1999
). F.K. v.Iowa district Court forPolk County,Id.”


Another recent 9th Circuit case
also held that there is no exception to the warrant requirement for social
workers in the context of a child abuse investigation.  ‘The [California]
regulations they cite require social workers to respond to various contacts in
various ways.  But none of the
regulations cited say that the social worker may force her way into a home
without a search warrant in the absence of any emergency.’ Calabretta v. Floyd, 189 F.3d 808 (9th Cir. 1999)
Calabretta also cites various cases form other jurisdictions for its
conclusion.  Good v. Dauphin County Social Servs., 891 F.2d 1087 (3rd
Cir. 1989
) held that a social worker and police officer were not
entitled to qualified immunity for insisting on entering her house against the
mother’s will to examine her child for bruises.
Good holds that a search
warrant or exigent circumstances, such as a need to protect a child against
imminent danger of serious bodily injury, was necessary for an entry without consent,
and the anonymous tip claiming bruises was in the case insufficient to
establish special exigency.


The 9th Circuit further opined
in Wallis v. Spencer, 202 F.3d 1126 (9th
Cir. 2000
), that ‘[b]ecause the swing of every pendulum brings with it
potential adverse consequences, it is important to emphasize that in the area
of child abuse, as with the investigation and prosecution of all crimes, the
state is constrained by the substantive and procedural guarantees of the
Constitution.  The fact that the
suspected crime may be heinous – whether it involves children or adults – does
not provide cause for the state to ignore the rights of the accused or any
other parties.  Otherwise, serious
injustices may result.  In cases of
alleged child abuse, governmental failure to abide by constitutional
constraints may have deleterious long-term consequences for the child and,
indeed, for the entire family.
Ill-considered and improper governmental action may create significant
injury where no problem of any kind previously existed
.’Id. at 1130-1131.”


This was the case involving DCF in Connecticut.  Many of their policies are unlawful and
contradictory to the Constitution.  DCF
has unlawful polices giving workers permission to coerce, intimidate and to
threatened innocent families with governmental intrusion and oppression with
police presences to squelch and put down any citizen who asserts their 4th
Amendment rights by not allowing an unlawful investigation to take place in
their private home when no imminent danger is present.


DCF is the “moving force” behind the on-going
violations of federal law and violations of the Constitution.  This idea of not complying with the 4th
and 14th Amendments is so impregnated in their statutes, policies,
practices and customs.  It affects all
and what they do.  DCF takes on the
persona of the feeling of exaggerated power over parents and that they are
totally immune.  Further, that they can
do basically do anything they want including engaging in deception,
misrepresentation of the facts and lying to the judge.  This happens thousands of times every day in
the United States
where the end justifies the mean even if it is unlawful, illegal and


We can tell you stories for hours
where CPS employees committed criminal acts and were prosecuted and went to
jail and/or were sued for civil rights violations.  CPS workers have lied in reports and court
documents, asked others to lie, and kidnapped children without court orders.  They even have crossed state lines impersonating
police, kidnapping children and then were prosecuted for their actions.  There are also a number of documented cases where
the case worker killed the child.


It is sickening how many children are subject to abuse, neglect
and even killed at the hands of Child Protective Services.  The following statistics represent the number
of cases per 100,000 children in the United States and includes DCF in Connecticut.  This information is from The National Center
on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN) inWashington.


Perpetrators of Maltreatment























Imagine that, 6.4 children die at the
hands of the very agencies that are supposed to protect them and only 1.5 at
the hands of parents per 100,000 children.
CPS perpetrates more abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse and kills more
children then parents in the United
If the citizens of this country hold CPS to the same standards that they
hold parents too.  No judge should ever
put another child in the hands of ANY government agency because CPS nationwide
is guilty of more harm and death than any human being combined.  CPS nationwide is guilty of more human rights
violations and deaths of children then the homes from which they were removed.  When are the judges going to wake up and see
that they are sending children to their death and a life of abuse when children
are removed from safe homes based on the mere opinion of a bunch of social






The United States Court of Appeals for the
Ninth Circuit said it best, “The government’s interest in the welfare of
children embraces not only protecting children from physical abuse, but also protecting
children’s interest in the privacy and dignity of their homes and in the
lawfully exercised authority of their parents.” Calabretta v. Floyd, 189 F.3d 808 (1999).


This statement came in a case, which held
that social workers who, in pursuit of a child abuse investigation, invaded a
family home without a warrant violating the Fourth Amendment rights of both
children and parents.  Upon remand for
the damages phase of the trial, the social workers, police officers, and
governments that employed them settled this civil rights case for $150,000.00.


Contrary to the assumption of hundreds of social workers,
the Ninth Circuit held that the Fourth Amendment applies just as much to a
child abuse investigation as it does to any criminal or other governmental
investigation.  Social workers are not
exempt from the requirements of the Fourth Amendment when they act alone.  They are not exempt from its rules if they
are accompanied by a police officer.  Police
officers are not exempt from the requirement even if all they do is get the
front door open for the social worker; this would be intimidation, coercion and
threatening.  The general rule is that
unreasonable searches and seizures are banned.
But the second part of the rule is the most important in this context.  All warrantless searches are presumptively






If a police officer says, “If you don’t
let us in your home we will break down your door” –a parent who then opens the
door has not given free and voluntary consent.
If a social worker says, “if you don’t let me in the home, I will take
your children away” –a parent who then opens the door has not given free and
voluntary consent.  If a social worker
says, “I will get a warrant from the judge or I will call the police if you do
not let me in” negate consent.  ANY type of communication,
which conveys the idea to the parent that they have no realistic alternative,
but to allow entry negates any claim that the entry was lawfully gained through
the channel of consent
.  DCF’s policy
clearly tells the social worker that they can threaten parents even if the
parents assert their 4th Amendment rights.


Consent to warrantless entry must be voluntary and not
the result of duress or coercion.  Lack
of intelligence, not understanding the right not to consent, or trickery
invalidate voluntary consent.  Schneckloth
v. Bustamonte, 412 US
218 (1973
).  One’s awareness of his
or her right to refuse consent to warrantless entry is relevant to the issue of
voluntariness of alleged content.  Lion
Boulos v. Wilson,
834 F. 2d 504 (9th Cir. 1987
“Consent” that is the product of official intimidation or harassment is
not consent at all.  Citizens do not
forfeit their constitutional rights when they are coerced to comply with a
request that they would prefer to refuse.
v. Bostick, 501 US
429 (1991
).  Coercive or intimidating
behavior supports a reasonable belief that compliance is compelled.  Cassady v. Tackett, 938 F. 2d (6th
Cir. 1991
).  Coercion can be mental
as well as physical.  Blackburn
v. Alabama,
361 US






The Fourth Amendment does not put a
barrier in the way of a social worker who has reliable evidence that a child is
in imminent danger.  For example, if a
hot line call comes in and says, “My name is Mildred Smith, here is my address
and phone number.  I was visiting my
grandchildren this morning and I discovered that one of my grandchildren,
Johnny, age 5, is being locked in his bedroom without food for days at a time,
and he looked pale and weak to me” – the social worker certainly has evidence
of exigent circumstances and is only one step away from having probable cause.


Since the report has been received over
the telephone, it is possible that the tipster is an imposter and not the
child’s grandmother.  A quick
verification of the relationship can be made in a variety of ways and once
verified, the informant, would satisfy the legal test of reliability, which is
necessary to establish probable cause.
Anonymous phone calls fail the second part of the two-prong requirement
of “exigent circumstances” and “probable cause” for a warrant or order.  Anonymous phone calls cannot stand the test
of probable cause as defined within the 14th Amendment and would
fail in court on appeal.  The social
worker(s) would lose their qualified immunity for their deprivation of rights
and can be sued.  Many social workers and
Child Protection Services (“CPS”) lose their cases in court because their entry
into homes was in violation of the parents civil rights because the evidence in
their possession did not satisfy the standard of probable cause.


It is not enough to have information that
the children are in some form of serious danger.  The evidence must also pass a test of
reliability that our justice system calls probable cause.  In H.R.
v. State Department of Human Resources, 612 So.2d 477 (Ala. Ct. App. 1992
the court held that an anonymous tip standing alone never amounts to probable
cause.  The Calabretta court held the
same thing, as have numerous other decisions, which have faced the issue
directly.  The Fourth Amendment itself
spells out the evidence required for a warrant or entry order.  No warrant shall be issued but on probable
cause.  The United States Supreme Court
has held that courts may not use a different standard other than probable cause
for the issuance of such orders.  Griffin v. Wisconsin, 483 U.S. 868 (1987).  If a court issues a warrant based on an
uncorroborated anonymous tip, the warrant will not survive a judicial challenge
in the higher courts.  Anonymous tips are
never probable cause.


Children are not well served if they are
subjected to investigations base on false allegations.  Little children can be traumatized by
investigations in ways that are unintended by the social worker.  However, to a small child all they know is
that a strange adult is taking off their clothing while their mother is sobbing
in the next room in the presence of an armed police officer.  This does not seem to a child to be a proper
invasion of their person –quite different, for example, from an examination by
a doctor when their mother is present and cooperating.  The misuse of anonymous tips is well known.  Personal vendettas, neighborhood squabbles,
disputes on the Little League field, child custody battles, revenge, nosey
individuals who are attempting to impose their views on others are turned into
maliciously false allegations breathed into a hotline.


“Decency, security and liberty alike demand
that government officials shall be subject to the rules of conduct that are
commands to the citizen.  In a government
of laws, existence of government will be imperiled if it fails to observe the
law scrupulously.  Our government is the
potent, omnipresent teacher.  For good or
ill, it teaches the whole people by example.
Crime is contagious.  If the
government becomes a law-breaker, it breeds contempt for the law.  It invites every man to become a law unto
himself.  It invites anarchy.  U.S. v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438 (1928),
Justice Brandeis.


We the people of the United States
are ruled by law, not by feelings.  If
the courts allow states and their agencies to rule by feelings and not law, we
become a nation without law that makes decisions based on subjectivity and
objectivity.  CPS has been allowed to
bastardize and emasculate the Constitution and the rights of its citizens to be
governed by the rule of men rather then the rule of law.  It is very dangerous when governmental
officials are allowed to have unfettered access to a citizen’s home.  It is also very dangerous to allow CPS to
violate the confrontation clause in the 6th Amendment were CPS
hides, conceals and covers up the accuser/witness who makes the  report.
It allows those individuals to have a safe haven to file fraudulent
reports and CPS aids and abets in this violation of fundamental rights.  All citizens have the right to know their
accuser/witness in order to preserve the sanctity of the rule of law and that
the Constitution is the supreme law of the land.






Yes it is illegal and an unconstitutional practice to
remove children which results in punishing the children and the non-offending
parent as stated.  In a landmark class
action suit in the U.S. District Court, Eastern District of New York, U.S.
District Judge Jack Weinsein ruled on Nicholson
v. Williams, Case No.: 00-cv-2229
, the suit challenged the practice of
New York’s City’s Administration for Children’s Services of removing the
children of battered mothers solely because the children saw their mothers
being beaten by husbands or boyfriends.
Judge Weistein ruled that the practice is unconstitutional and he
ordered it stopped.




according to Judge Weistein’s ruling and to the leading national experts


During the trial, several leading national experts
testified on the impact on children of witnessing domestic violence, and the
impact on children of being removed from the non-offending parent.  Views of Experts on Effects of Domestic
Violence on Children, and defining witnessing domestic violence by children as
maltreatment or emotional neglect is a mistake.
A “great concern [regarding] how increased awareness of children’s
exposure [to domestic violence] and associated problems is being used.  Concerned about the risk adult domestic
violence poses for children, some child protection agencies in the United States
appear to be defining exposure to domestic violence as a form of child…Defining
witnessing as maltreatment is a mistake.
Doing so ignores the fact that large numbers of children in these
studies showed no negative development problems and some showed evidence of
strong coping abilities.  Automatically
defining witnessing as maltreatment may also ignore battered mother’s efforts
to develop safe environments for their children and themselves.” Ex. 163 at




Dr. Wolf testified that disruptions in the
parent-child relationship might provoke fear and anxiety in a child and
diminish his or her sense of stability and self.  Tr. 565-67.
He described the typical response of a child separated from his parent:
“When a young child is separated from a parent unwillingly, he or she shows
distress … At first, the child is very anxious and protests vigorously and
angrily.  Then he falls into a sense of
despair, though still hyper vigilant, looking, waiting, and hoping for her
return …” A child’s sense of time factors into the extent to which a separation
impacts his or her emotional well-being.
Thus, for younger children whose sense of time is less keenly developed,
short periods of parental absence may seem longer than for older children.  Tr 565-65.  See also Ex. 141b.


For those children who are in homes where
there is domestic violence, disruption of that bond can be even more traumatic
than situations where this is no domestic violence.  Dr. Stark (Yale New Haven
Hospital researcher)
asserted that if a child is placed in foster care as a result of domestic
violence in the home, then he or she may view such removal as “a traumatic act
of punishment … and [think] that something that [he] or she has done or failed
to do has caused this separation.” Tr. 1562-63.
Dr. Pelcovitz stated that “taking a child whose greatest fear is
separation from his or her mother and in the name of ‘protecting’ that child
[by] forcing on them, what is in effect, their worst nightmare, … is tantamount
to pouring salt on an open wound.” Ex. 139 at 5.


Another serious implication of removal is
that it introduces children to the foster care system, which can be much more
dangerous and debilitating than the home situation.  Dr. Stark testified that foster homes are
rarely screened for the presence of violence, and that the incidence of abuse
and child fatality in foster homes is double that in the general population.  Tr 1596; Ex. 122 at 3-4.  Children in foster care often fail to receive
adequate medical care.  Ex. 122 at
6.  Foster care placements can disrupt
the child’s contact with community, school and siblings.  Ex. 122 at 8.






they do, children have standing to sue for their removal after they reach the
age of majority.  Parents also have legal
standing to sue if CPS violated their 4th and 14th Amendment
rights.  Children have a Constitutional
right to live with their parents without government interference.  Brokaw
v. Mercer County, 7th Cir. (2000
)  A child has a constitutionally protected
interest in the companionship and society of his or her parents.  Ward
v. San Jose, 9th Cir. (1992
State employees who withhold a child from her family infringe on the
family’s liberty of familial association.
K.H. through Murphy v. Morgan,
7th Cir. (1990


The forced separation of parent from
child, even for a short time, represents a serious infringement upon the rights
of both.  J.B. v. Washington
county, 10th Cir. (1997
Parent’s interest is of “the highest order.” And the court recognizes
“the vital importance of curbing overzealous suspicion and intervention on the
part of health care professionals and government officials.” Thomason v. Scan Volunteer Services,
Inc., 8th Cir. (1996


You must protect you and your child’s
rights.  CPS has no legal right to enter
your home or speak to you and your child when there in no imminent danger
present.  Know your choices; you can
refuse to speak to any government official whether it is the police or CPS as
long as there is an open criminal investigation.  They will tell you that what they are
involved in is a civil matter not a criminal matter.  Don’t you believe it.  There is nothing civil about allegations of
child abuse or neglect.  It is a criminal
matter disguised as a civil matter.
Police do not get involved in civil matters if it truly is one.  You will regret letting them in your home and
speaking with them like the thousands of other parents who have gone through
this.  When you ask a friend, family
member or someone at work what to do, they will tell you if you agree to
services, CPS will leave you alone or you can get your kids back.  That is an incorrect assumption.


Refusing them entry is NOT hindering an
investigation, it is a Fourth Amendment protection.  CPS or the juvenile judge cannot abrogate
that right as long as your children are not in imminent danger.  Tell them to go packing.  DO NOT
sign anything, it will come back to be used against you in any possible
kangaroo trial.  Your children’s records
are protected by FERPA and HIPAA regarding your children’s educational and
medical records.  They need a lawful
warrant like the police under the “warrant clause” to seize any records.  If your child’s school records contain
medical records, then HIPAA also applies.
When the school or doctor sends records to CPS or allows them to view
them without your permission, both the sender and receiver violated the
law.  You need to file a HIPAA complaint
on the sender and the receiver.  (See PDF
version and a Microsoft Word version
Remember, you only have 180 days from the time you found out about
it.  Tell them they need a lawful warrant
to make you do anything.  CPS has no
power; do not agree to a drug screen or a psychological evaluation.







Special Education
Services Reinstated for Homeschoolers,
15, 2006

After a legal letter “tug-of-war,” the
Illinois Department of Education has finally relented. Their General Counsel
contacted the Home School Legal Defense Association and has apologized for
their erroneous memorandum of 2005 that effectively cut off special needs
services to homeschoolers throughout the state.

In December of 2005, several Illinoismember families contacted HSLDA
because their special education services with their local public schools had
been suddenly terminated.

One member family, the Blunts, had received a letter
from the Director of Special Education of their local school district. The
letter stated that according to the federal Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act (IDEA) of 2004, the school district was no longer required to
offer special education services to any private school that was not state

After having worked with congressional staff on the
Education and Workforce Committee and with the legal counsel of the U.S.
Department of Education for the last 10 years on this issue, the HSLDA legal
staff knew that the letter the family received contained erroneous information.
U.S. Department of Education officials have assured us that in states where
homeschools are considered private schools, like Illinois, these private school children
taught at home have access to special needs educational support through the
public schools.

HSLDA Senior Counsel Chris Klicka drafted a letter on
behalf of the Blunts explaining the school district’s error. He informed school
officials that special needs services must be restored to the Blunt family’s

Shortly after sending the letter, HSLDA received a
letter from the school district’s attorney. The letter stated that the 2005
memorandum in question had been drafted by the Illinois State Department of
Education’s Assistant Superintendent as “interim guidance” for Illinois public schools.
The memorandum defined eligibility based on whether the student was enrolled in
a “state recognized private school.”

The memorandum was inaccurate and contradicted federal

The issue of whether home-educated students are
eligible to receive special education services had already been acknowledged at
a federal level. In federal reports regarding issues surrounding those eligible
for IDEA, the Federal Director of Special Education in a letter procured by
HSLDA stated:

determination of whether a home education arrangement constitutes private
school placement must be made on the basis of state law. Thus, if home
education constitutes enrollment in a private school under state law, then the
requirements of Regs. 300.403 and 300.452 apply when deciding whether to
provide special education or related services to a child with disabilities who
is being educated at home.”

The above report makes it crystal clear that if the
state recognizes a home education program as a private school in that state,
then those home-educated students are eligible for the services.

HSLDA Attorney Chris Klicka sent a letter to the
author of the 2005 memorandum explaining that the highest court in Illinois defines home
education programs as private schools, and therefore, in Illinois, home-educated students are
eligible for special education services. The Illinois Supreme Court held that
no accreditation is necessary. Klicka’s letter also specifically demanded a
response within 10 days and that the memorandum be corrected.

Within the requested time, Klicka received a phone
call from the General Counsel and a special director Illinois Department of
Education. Somewhat apologetic, they admitted their error, assuring him that
they will revise their memorandum soon by removing the offensive language
requiring a private school to be “state recognized” before its
students could be eligible for special education services.

Illinoisspecial education home school students will once
again be able to receive needed educational services.





Under the Individuals with
Disabilities in Education Act (“IDEA”) it DOES NOT compell
the state or boards of educations to test every child, it’s just a funding
statute.  The only thing the state or board of education in this
country can do is OFFER the testing and services and make it
available to home school students … that’s it.  Parents have the
absolute choice and legal option to refuse any testing or services that the
state has to offer especially if it is funded.  Parents can
refuse federally funded services and seek out private educators and
testing when it comes to the child educational needs..


The boards of educations
in the state of Connecticut and the other 49 states have misapplied and
abused IDEA and harmed children and families by forcing home school
children to be tested when they are not required to do so and acting outside
the statute.  When parents refused testing because board of
educations lack jurisdiction, they would call child protection and file a false
report.  Follow the money trail, the boards of educations get funding by
every label they slap on a child, just like child protection.


In short, when a parent
desides to home school or private school their children, the state, DCF and the
school system lacks all jurisdition and control of the child because the
parent acts in the best interest of the child not the government.  The
state can’t act in the child’s best interest without the requsite proof of
parental unfitness.  A child’s educational needs has nothing to do with
serious abuse and neglect and the courts and CPS/DCF lack jurisdiction.


This is the big lie that
child protection is perpetrating across this country.  The services that
are all federally funded that CPS/DCF gets paid for are to be offered to
parents, not forced down parents throats.  Parents ultimately make the
decision on what services, if any, parents feel what is in the best
interest of the child and the entire family, not child protection and their
untrained government workers.  CPS/DCF workers think they are doing
something great when in reality they are harming the most inocent among
us.  Only parents know what’s in the best interest of their child, not the
court or the state.


The following ruling
upholds the parent’s right to reject and refuse services from CPS/DCF, the board
of education or any other agency.  Thomas M. Dutkiewicz


Eighth Circuit
Appeals Court Rules in Favor of Homeschoolers
,March 2, 2006

A federal appeals court ruled unanimously in favor of
Home School Legal Defense Association (“HSLDA”) members Ron and
Joann Fitzgerald on Wednesday and held that school districts may not force
homeschooled children to submit to special-needs evaluations against their
parents’ wishes.

The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth
Circuit, which includes Missouri
where the Fitzgeralds reside, held that the federal Individuals with
Disabilities in Education Act (“IDEA”) does not give public
schools jurisdiction over homeschooled children who may have special needs.
“Where a home-schooled child’s parents refuse consent [for an evaluation],
privately educate the child, and expressly waive all benefits under the IDEA,
an evaluation would have no purpose. . . . [A] district may not force an
evaluation under the circumstances in this case.”

As reported in the January/February 2005
Court Report,
HSLDA has been defending the Fitzgerald family’s right to
privacy for almost three years. The Fitzgeralds had withdrawn their son, Sean*,
from public school after years of disagreement with the school over the
provision of special education services. When they started homeschooling Sean,
they had his special needs privately evaluated, and they decided to obtain
private special education services for him.

The school district, however, demanded that the
parents permit a public school evaluation for special needs, even though it admitted
that it could not force the family to accept any actual services from the
public school
. An administrative panel agreed with the school district and
ordered the family to submit to the evaluation. HSLDA appealed to the federal
district court, which agreed with the school district. The Eighth Circuit
reversed these decisions.

“This victory is going to help homeschooling
families all over the country,” said HSLDA litigation counsel James R.
Mason III, who argued the case in the Eighth Circuit. “The court
recognized that homeschooling parents may provide for the special needs of
their children without undue interference from meddling school officials.”

HSLDA is representing another member family in New Yorkwhere a public
school district seeks to evaluate their child.

* Name changed to protect family’s privacy.


February 2, 2006

Graduates Enlisting in the Military Protected by New Law

There is more good news for homeschool graduates
seeking to enlist in the Armed Services.

An amendment to Section 522 of Senate Bill 1042,
requires the Secretary of Defense to create a uniform policy for recruiting
homeschool graduates for all four branches of the Armed Services. Furthermore, the
new law makes it clear homeschoolers do not have to obtain a GED
carries the stigma of being a dropout. The bill was signed into law by
President Bush last January.

Although there is no discrimination currently being
practiced through any formal policies in the military against homeschool
graduates, the new law will virtually eliminate the concern that discrimination
could happen in the future. The new law specifies that the uniform policy is
for the purposes of recruitment and enlistment of homeschoolers. Therefore, the
new policy will not discriminate against homeschoolers because the goal is
recruitment and not exclusion.

Homeschool graduates who desire a career with any of
the four Armed Services are currently designated as “preferred
enlistees.” This means that homeschool graduates who enlist in the
military will be treated as if they are Tier I candidates even though their
formal status will remain Tier II. Therefore, homeschoolers will receive the same
educational benefits, cash bonuses, and available positions in the Armed
Services that they would receive if they were Tier I candidates.

HSLDA has been working with the military for several
years to remove discriminatory barriers for homeschool graduates. Beginning in
1998, HSLDA secured a pilot project that lasted six years where homeschoolers
were experimentally categorized as Tier I candidates, which is the same status
as high school graduates from public schools.

Although the program continued until October, 2004, it
was not renewed. HSLDA contacted the Administration and explained our
situation. A meeting was arranged for us with the Assistant Secretary of
Defense and a few other Pentagon officials a month later.

As a result of the meeting in January 2005, the
Department of Defense issued a letter stating that homeschoolers were
considered “preferred enlistees” and that there were no
“practical limits” to the numbers of homeschoolers who could obtain
entrance into the Armed Services. At that point, the Department of Defense, at
the highest levels, began working with HSLDA to resolve every problem at the
local recruitment level with homeschool graduates. Over time, as the new policy
is implemented, local recruiters will be able to properly advise homeschoolers.

As a result of the 1998-2004 pilot project, and the
January 2005 directive from the Department of Defense, thousands of
homeschoolers are serving our country faithfully in the Armed Services.







Fergusonv. City ofCharleston: Social and Legal Contexts (11/1/2000)



v. City of Charleston


On October 4, 2000, the U.S.
Supreme Court heard arguments in Ferguson v. City of Charleston, a
case considering the constitutionality of a governmental policy of
surreptitiously drug testing pregnant women in a South Carolina hospital, which then reported
positive cocaine results to law enforcement officers. Though the legal question
is narrow — whether the Fourth Amendment permits the state, acting without
either a warrant or individualized suspicion, to drug test pregnant women who
seek prenatal care in a public hospital — the case points to broader issues
concerning the right of pregnant women to be treated as fully autonomous under
the Constitution.


the past several years, the state has increasingly intruded into the lives of
pregnant women, policing their conduct in the name of protecting fetuses.
Pregnant women have been forced to undergo unwanted cesareans; they’ve been
ordered to have their cervixes sewn up to prevent miscarriage; they’ve been
incarcerated for consuming alcohol; and they’ve been detained, as in the case
of one young woman, simply because she “lack[ed] motivation or [the]
ability to seek medical care” (V. Kolder, J. Gallagher, and M. Parsons,
“Court-Ordered Obstetrical Interventions,” New England
Journal of Medicine
 (1987) 316, No. 19: 1195).


in many of these cases the invasive state actions have been rescinded by higher
officials or rejected by the courts. Unfortunately, many of these decisions
came too late to prevent unwarranted suffering and to protect women from being
deprived of their rights.

the Supreme Court rules in Ferguson we
are hopeful that it will recognize that the Constitution protects pregnant
women on an equal basis with all free adults, making it clear that pregnant
women are not wards of the state.


Facts in Ferguson


1989, an interagency group consisting of representatives from the City of
Charleston Police Department, the Charleston County Solicitor’s Office (the
prosecutor), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC, a public
hospital in Charleston) developed and implemented the Interagency Policy on
Cocaine Abuse in Pregnancy. Under the policy, MUSC subjected pregnant women to
warrantless searches if they met any one of several criteria, including no or
minimal prenatal care; unexplained preterm labor; birth defects or poor fetal
growth; separation of the placenta from the uterine wall; a history of drug or
alcohol abuse; or intrauterine fetal death.


the early months of the program, women were immediately arrested after they or
their newborns tested positive for cocaine. One woman spent the last three
weeks of her pregnancy in jail. During this time she received prenatal care in
handcuffs and shackles. Authorities arrested another woman soon after she gave
birth; still bleeding and dressed in only a hospital gown, she was handcuffed
and taken to the city jail (Petitioners’ brief in Ferguson, 6,


1990, the prosecutor’s office added an “amnesty” component to the
policy: women testing positive for cocaine were given the “option” of
drug treatment to avoid arrest. If they failed to follow through on treatment
or if they tested positive a second time, however, they were arrested.


October 1994, after the Civil Rights Division of the U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services began investigating whether the hospital in carrying out the
policy had violated the civil rights of its African American patients, MUSC
dropped its program. In total, 30 women were arrested under the policy; 29 were
African American.


Against Policing Pregnancy

women who use drugs during pregnancy deters them from seeking critical prenatal
care and entering drug treatment programs. If the goal is to protect fetuses
and to help women become drug-free mothers, punitive measures have the opposite


studies done in hospitals and health-care centers in San Diego, Chicago, and
Detroit, for example, indicate that when pregnant women fear that they will be
prosecuted for their drug use, they do not seek prenatal care and will even choose
to deliver their babies at home (D. Roberts, Killing the Black Body, NY:
Pantheon Books (1997), 192). Indeed, MUSC’s policy appears to have driven
drug-using women out of the health-care system in that region, isolating them
in their drug use rather than helping them have healthy pregnancies and healthy
babies (L.G. Tribble et al., Analysis of a Hospital Maternal Cocaine
Testing Policy:
 In Association with Prenatal Care Utilization
Patterns, 1993).


punitive approach to drug use during pregnancy also stops women from
participating in drug-treatment programs. In another high-profile South
Carolina case, involving the Easely Baptist Medical Center, a young woman,
Cornelia Whitner, was arrested for “endangering the life of her unborn
child” and sentenced to eight years in prison after she gave birth to a
healthy baby boy whose urine, nonetheless, tested positive for cocaine.
Following the publicity surrounding this case, two drug-treatment programs in Columbia, SC,
reported a precipitous drop in the number of pregnant women entering their
facilities. One clinic found that between 1996 and 1997, it admitted 80 percent
fewer pregnant women than it had a year earlier; the other saw 54 percent fewer
pregnant women during the same time period (L. Paltrow, “Pregnant Drug
Users, Fetal Persons, and the Threat to Roe v. Wade, Albany Law
 (1999) 62, No. 999: n.147).


that criminalizing maternal drug use is bad medicine and bad public policy,
with potentially tragic consequences for pregnant women, their fetuses, and
their families, numerous medical and public-health organizations have denounced
the practice. These include the American Medical Association, the American
Academy of Pediatrics, the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, the
American Medical Women’s Association, the American College of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists, the American Public Health Association, the American Nurses
Association, the American Society on Addiction Medicine, the National Council
on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, the National Association of Social Workers,
and the March of Dimes, among other prominent groups.


women enjoy the same constitutional rights as other competent adults.


women have as great a right to privacy, bodily integrity, and autonomy as other
free adults. This means that the state cannot subject women to warrantless,
suspicionless, nonconsensual searches just because they are pregnant. MUSC’s
drug testing policy did just that.


if the tides were turned, and the state began testing men of child-bearing age
for illegal drug use because they did not have annual physicals or had a
history of substance abuse. Imagine further that officials arrest and take into
custody in the name of their unborn children those men with positive toxicology
reports. Given that recent studies have linked male drug use to sperm
abnormalities that can cause birth defects, this is not such a far-fetched
scenario (I. Pollard, “Substance Abuse and Parenthood: Biological
Mechanisms-Bioethical Challenges,” Women and Health (2000)
30, No. 3: 1-24). It is doubtful, however, that law enforcement working in
tandem with medical providers would consider implementing such a practice. And
surely if they did, the courts would rightfully hold such policies
unconstitutional. The rules, however, seem to change when it comes to pregnant
women, though the Constitution does not.


is hard to imagine subjecting fathers or soon-to-be fathers to the same level
of state interference in their private lives as we do pregnant women. We do not
strip fathers of their constitutional rights, even when their behavior may have
deleterious effects on their offspring. We do not, for example, arrest fathers
and remove them from their families if they smoke two packs of cigarettes a day
around their children and their pregnant wives, though there is ample evidence
that exposure — even prenatal exposure — to second-hand smoke can have
serious long-term health effects.


women, on the other hand, have been arrested or threatened with arrest for
consuming not just illegal substances, such as cocaine, but legal substances as
well. There are at least two recent incidents of state authorities arresting
women for consuming alcohol during pregnancy: one in South Carolina, the other in Wyoming (Paltrow, 1042;
R. Roth, Making Women Pay: The Hidden Costs of Fetal Rights, Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press (2000), 150). And in case the message to pregnant
women was not clear, officials in the South Carolina Department of Alcohol and
Other Drug Abuse Services recently distributed literature advising pregnant
women that “it’s . . . a crime in South Carolina” to “smoke,
drink . . . or engage in other activities that risk harming” the fetus.
Though in May of 2000, the state attorney general hastily recalled the pamphlet
and issued a statement that only pregnant women who use illegal drugs would be
prosecuted, the official responsible for redrafting the recalled material has
indicated that he “has not decided whether to make reference to nicotine
or alcohol abuse as potentially criminal” in the rewritten document
(American Civil Liberties Union amicus brief in Ferguson, 18).

and other state policies aimed at policing pregnant women assume that pregnant
women are different from other competent adults, that in becoming pregnant,
women somehow become wards of the state or forfeit their constitutional rights.
The Constitution, however, protects all of us, pregnant women included.


drug use crosses all racial and class lines, poor women of color have
overwhelmingly been the ones targeted and arrested for using drugs while


own records indicate that among its pregnant patients equal percentages of
white and African American women consumed illegal drugs (Roberts, 172).
However, of the 30 women arrested under the interagency drug-testing policy, 29
were African American (Petitioners’ brief in Ferguson, 13). These
numbers are in line with national statistics. In a 1990 study published in
the New England Journal of Medicine, for example, researchers
found that 15.4 percent of white women and 14.1 percent of African American
women used drugs during pregnancy. African American women, however, were 10
times more likely than white women to be reported to authorities (I. Chasnoff,
H. Landress, and M. Barrett, “Prevalence of Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use
During Pregnancy and Discrepancies in Mandatory Reporting in Pinellas County,
Florida,” New England Journal of Medicine (1990) 322, No.
17: 1202-6).

are many factors contributing to these discrepancies, with race and class
prejudices playing a major role in all of them. Because poor women of color are
far more likely to give birth at public institutions and have more contact with
state agencies, their drug use is far more likely than that of middle-class
white women to be detected and reported.


addition, a number of the criteria used to trigger testing under the MUSC
policy had little to do with drug use per se and had much more to do with
poverty. For example, the hospital tested women who received little or no
prenatal care. Yet, with fewer resources and less connection to the medical
community than middle-class women, poor women are more likely to delay seeking
prenatal care until relatively late in pregnancy or to obtain no prenatal care
at all. Inadequate prenatal care can, in turn, result in unexplained preterm
labor, birth defects or poor fetal growth, separation of the placenta from the
uterine wall, or intrauterine fetal death, all conditions that the MUSC policy
also identified as grounds for testing pregnant patients.


a drug-testing policy that targets crack cocaine, a drug more prevalent among
inner-city communities of color, rather than other substances like
methamphetamines, a drug used more often by white rural and suburban women,
will unfairly result in the arrests of women of color (Roberts, 177). The
singling out of cocaine is not justified on medical grounds. Studies on drug
use during pregnancy consistently show that the abuse of other substances, both
legal and illegal, can harm fetal development as much as or more than cocaine
(American Medical Association amicus brief in Ferguson, 15,
16; Public Health Association et al., amicus brief in Ferguson, 29).

practice, therefore, MUSC’s policy was a form of racial profiling. By both
design and implementation, the policy led inevitably to the identification and
punishment of drug use by pregnant, low-income women of color, leaving other
pregnant users free of the threat of warrantless, suspicionless, nonconsensual
drug testing.


pregnant women for drug use sets the state on a slippery slope. What’s to stop
the state from arresting women for drinking alcohol or smoking cigarettes while
pregnant? Where will we draw the line?


recent years, pregnant women have been forced to undergo an array of medical
procedures without their consent and have been imprisoned for alcohol use,
unruliness, and mental illness, all in the name of protecting fetal health.
Below are a few examples:


  • In Massachusetts, a lower court ordered a
    pregnant woman’s cervix sewn up against her will to prevent a possible
    miscarriage. The woman was ultimately spared from undergoing the procedure
    by the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, which vacated the lower court’s
    order because it had not adequately considered the woman’s constitutional
    right to privacy (See Taft v. Taft, 446 N.E. 2d 395, 396,
    397 (Mass. 1983)).


  • In Illinois, a pregnant woman was advised
    that, because of an insufficient flow of oxygen to the fetus, the fetus
    could be born dead or severely retarded if she did not immediately undergo
    a cesarean. When the woman opposed the surgery on religious grounds, the
    office of the State’s Attorney sought a court order compelling her to
    submit to the cesarean. Rejecting the state’s argument, the appellate
    court held that a woman’s “right to refuse invasive medical
    treatment, derived from her rights to privacy, bodily integrity, and
    religious liberty, is not diminished during pregnancy.” The woman
    ultimately gave birth by vaginal delivery to a normal, healthy — though
    somewhat underweight — baby boy (In re Baby Doe, 632 N.E.2d
    332, 329 (Ill. App. Ct. 1994)).


  • In Washington, DC,
    a young pregnant woman, severely ill with cancer, several times mouthed
    the words “I don’t want it done” when told that a court had
    ordered her to undergo a cesarean and that she likely would not survive
    the operation. The cesarean was nonetheless performed; the baby died
    within a few hours of birth; and the woman died two days later. An appellate
    court ultimately reversed the order that authorized the involuntary
    surgery, but not in time to help the woman or her family (In re A.C., 573
    A.2d 1235, 1241 (D.C. 1990)).


  • In Wyoming, officials arrested a pregnant
    woman because of alcohol use and charged her with felony child abuse. She
    spent time in jail before a judge dismissed the charge (Roth, 150).


  • In Wisconsin, officials held a pregnant
    sixteen-year-old in secure detention for the sake of fetal development
    because the young woman tended “to be on the run” and to
    “lack motivation or ability to seek medical care” (
    Kolder, et al., 1192, 1195).


  • In California, a deputy district attorney,
    concerned about a pregnant woman’s mental state but lacking sufficient
    evidence to have her committed for psychiatric treatment, instead obtained
    a juvenile court order declaring her fetus a dependent child of the state
    and detaining the woman pending birth. An appellate court ultimately held
    that the district attorney had impermissibly manipulated the juvenile laws
    to detain the pregnant woman and released her when she was approximately
    seven months pregnant (In re Steven S., 126 Cal. App. 3d 23,
    27, 30-31 (Cal. Ct. App. 1981)).


actions to police pregnant women for the alleged benefit of their fetuses are
not only misguided as a matter of policy, they are unlawful.


In Ferguson, the
question is whether the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution permits a public
hospital to subject women to drug testing, the results of which are reported to
the police, without a warrant, without individualized suspicion, and without
the woman’s consent. The answer is no.


government may dispense with the protections normally demanded under the Fourth
Amendment prior to a search — securing a warrant or having an individualized
suspicion of criminal conduct — only if the search falls within a
“special needs” exception. To satisfy that exception, the
governmental policy must be unrelated to law enforcement, and the person being
searched must have a diminished expectation of privacy.


this case, however, law enforcement officials were intimately involved in
creating and implementing MUSC’s policy: women who tested positive for cocaine
were arrested and prosecuted, or threatened with these consequences, in case
after case.

the notion that women have a diminished expectation of privacy when they are
pregnant is at odds with our strong constitutional tradition of respecting
pregnant women’s privacy rights. Nothing in U.S. law permits the state to step
in to ensure that women “behave” themselves during pregnancy. The
Constitution does not permit such an assault on women’s privacy and


the question before the U.S. Supreme Court in Ferguson concerns the Fourth
Amendment, the restraints imposed on pregnant women in this and other contexts,
all in the purported interest of the fetus, raise additional legal concerns.
While both men and women engage in conduct that may be harmful to a fetus, only
women — by virtue of their pregnancies — are targeted for punitive measures.
By singling out women in this manner, the state discriminates against them,
potentially violating both the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth
Amendment of the Constitution and various civil rights laws. By the same token,
policies, like MUSC’s, that target women of color may violate constitutional
and statutory prohibitions against race discrimination. Finally, efforts by the
state to protect the fetus by confining women — whether to a hospital or jail
— or by compelling medical treatment — whether the woman is strapped to a
gurney for a forced cesarean section, tied into stirrups for a pelvic exam, or
involuntarily hospitalized during delivery — violate the guarantee of liberty
of the Due Process Clause of the Federal Constitution.







Thursday, November 3, 2005 · Last updated 6:23 p.m. PT

Court rejects Mo. child abuse registry



JEFFERSON CITY, Mo. -- A judge declared Missouri's child abuse
registry unconstitutional Thursday, ruling that suspected offenders deserved a court-like
hearing before being listed.

The registry
is kept secret from the general public, but is used by child care providers and
others to screen current and potential employees.

Circuit Judge
Richard Callahan concluded that people's reputations and professional careers
were damaged when their names were placed in the child abuse registry before a
due-process hearing.

The Department
of Social Services said it was likely to appeal the case to the Missouri
Supreme Court.  Callahan suspended the
effect of his judgment pending an appeal.

ruling stemmed from a 2002 instance of alleged sexual abuse at the Faith House
child care facility in St. Louis.
Although they were not accused of abuse themselves, founder Mildred Jamison and
nurse Betty Dotson were listed on the child abuse registry based on probable
cause of neglect.

The decision
was upheld by the Department of Social Services' Child Abuse and Neglect Review
Board, which holds only informal hearings, not ones following judicial
procedures. Decisions by the review panel can be appealed to a judge, but the
listing occurred before that happened.

Callahan said
it violated constitutional due-process rights to list people on the registry
prior to holding a hearing before a neutral decision-maker in which witnesses
are under oath, can be cross-examined and can be compelled to testify.

He also said
the hearings must use a tougher-to-prove criterion of "preponderance of
the evidence" instead of "probable cause" - a change already
made by a 2004 law.

Jamison said
Callahan's ruling was "wonderful, because many people don't know what the
due process is. Their names go on, and they don't know about the appeals
process or any of that."

Dotson could
not be reached for comment.







Police and DCF must have the consent of both parents or parties to
enter a home.  If one parent or party present denies entry, the
police and DCF can’t enter based on one consenting party but must yield to the
non-consenting party.  All occupants must give consent.


Thomas Dutkiewicz, President, Connecticut DCF Watch


High Court Trims Police Power
to Search Homes

By Charles Lane

Washington Post Staff Writer

Thursday, March 23, 2006;

The Supreme Court narrowed police search
powers yesterday, ruling that officers must have a warrant to look for evidence
in a couple’s home unless both partners present agree to let them in.

The 5
to 3 decision sparked a sharp exchange among the justices. The
majority portrayed the decision as striking a blow for privacy rights and
gender equality; dissenters said it could undermine police efforts against
domestic violence, the victims of which are often women.

The ruling upholds a 2004 decision of the
Georgia Supreme Court but still makes a significant change in the law
nationwide, because most other lower federal and state courts had previously
said that police could search with the consent of one of two adults living

Now, officers must first ask a judicial
officer for a warrant in such cases. Quarrels between husbands and wives, or
boyfriends and girlfriends, keep police busy around the country; in the
District, almost half of the 39,000 violent crime calls officers answered in
2000 involved alleged domestic violence.

Justice David H. Souter’s majority opinion
said that the consent of one partner is not enough, because of “widely
shared social expectations” that adults living together each have veto
power over who can come into their shared living space. That makes a
warrantless search based on only one partner’s consent “unreasonable”
and, therefore, unconstitutional.

“[T]here is no common understanding
that one co-tenant generally has a right or authority to prevail over the
express wishes of another, whether the issue is the color of the curtains or
invitations to outsiders,” Souter wrote.

Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr., writing
his first dissent since joining the court in October, said the ruling’s
“cost” would be “great,” especially in domestic dispute

Roberts wrote that the ruling made no
sense, given that the court had previously said it is constitutional for police
to enter a house with the permission of one partner when the other is asleep or
absent. Those rulings were unchanged by yesterday’s decision.

Just by agreeing to live with someone
else, a co-tenant has surrendered a good deal of the privacy that the
Constitution’s Fourth Amendment was designed to protect, Roberts noted.

“The majority’s rule apparently forbids
police from entering to assist with a domestic dispute if the abuser whose
behavior prompted the request for police assistance objects,” he wrote.

But Souter called that argument a
“red herring,” saying that the police would still have legal
authority to enter homes where one partner was truly in danger.

“[T]his case has no bearing on the
capacity of the police to protect domestic victims,” Souter wrote.
“No question has been raised, or reasonably could be, about the authority
of the police to enter a dwelling to protect a resident from domestic violence;
so long as they have good reason to believe such a threat exists.”

Souter said Roberts was guilty of
declaring that “the centuries of special protection for the privacy of the
home are over.”

Souter’s opinion was joined by Justices
John Paul Stevens, Anthony M. Kennedy, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen G.

Breyer backed Souter with a separate
opinion noting that his decisive fifth vote was cast on the understanding that
Souter’s analysis applies to cases such as this one, Georgia v. Randolph
, No. 04-1607
, in which the police were searching for evidence of a crime,
rather than intervening in a violent dispute.

“[T]oday’s decision will not
adversely affect ordinary law enforcement practices,” Breyer wrote.

The case arose out of a 2001 quarrel over
child custody at the home of Janet and Scott Randolph in Americus, Ga.
When officers arrived, she told them where they could find his cocaine. An
officer asked Scott Randolph for permission to search the house. He refused,
but Janet Randolph said yes — and led them to a straw covered in cocaine
crystals. Scott Randolph was arrested and indicted on charges of cocaine

Georgia’s Supreme Court ultimately ruled that the
evidence should be suppressed because it was gathered without a warrant.

Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence
Thomas also dissented. Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. did not vote because he was
not yet on the court in November, when the case was argued.

The main battle between Souter and Roberts
was accompanied by a skirmish between Stevens and Scalia, who used the case as
an opportunity to make points in the court’s long-running dispute over Scalia’s
view that the Constitution should be interpreted in light of the Framers’
original intent.

In a brief concurring opinion, Stevens
noted that the court’s ruling was based on the concept that neither a husband
nor a wife is “master” of the house in the eyes of the law. But at
the time the Bill of Rights was drafted, he wrote, only a husband’s consent or
objection would have been taken into account.

Thus, he wrote, “this case
illustrates why even the most dedicated adherent to an approach . . . that
places primary reliance on a search for original understanding would recognize
the relevance of changes in our society.”

Scalia fired back at “Justice
Stevens’ ‘attempted critique’ of originalism,’ ” arguing that the court’s
ruling would probably not benefit women.

“Given the usual patterns of domestic
violence,” he noted, “how often can police be expected to encounter
the situation in which a man urges them to enter the home while a woman
simultaneously demands they stay out?”

© 2006 The Washington Post






DEBORAH M., Petitioner,
in Interest. 



128 Cal. App. 4th 1181;
27 Cal. Rptr. 3d 757; 2005 Cal. App. LEXIS 681; 2005 Cal. Daily Op. Service
2005 Daily Journal DAR 4927

April 29, 2005, Filed

 [***1]  Proceedings in
prohibition after superior court order compelling hair follicle drug test. Superior Court of San Diego
County, No. ED24070, Alan Clements, Judge.

Petitioner mother sought a writ of prohibition, challenging
an order of respondent, the Superior
Court of
San Diego County
(California), that compelled her to submit to a hair follicle drug
test. The mother had sought to have her child support amended. In response,
real party in interest father had filed an order to show cause seeking a change
in custody and visitation, as well as an order for drug testing.

At issue was whether Cal. Fam. Code §
permitted courts in custody and visitation proceedings to order
drug testing by means of a hair follicle test of a parent whom the trial court
had determined engaged in habitual, frequent, or continual illegal use of
controlled substances. In granting a writ of prohibition, the court held that
§  3041.5(a) required any court-ordered
drug testing to conform to federal drug testing procedures and standards, and
at present those federal standards only allowed for urine tests. The language
of § 3041.5(a) and its statutory history demonstrated
that only urine tests were allowed because the language “least intrusive
method of testing” in §  3041.5(a)
did not show an intent by the legislature to allow any type of available
testing. To pass constitutional muster, the intrusiveness of the testing had to
be weighed, along with an individual’s legitimate expectation of privacy, the
nature and immediacy of the government concern at issue, and the efficacy of
drug testing in meeting that concern. Thus, the only reasonable interpretation
of the clause was that if and when additional tests were permitted, the least
intrusive method had to be used.

OUTCOME: The court issued a writ of
prohibition, directing the trial court to vacate its order compelling a hair
follicle drug test.






The state may not interfere in child
rearing decisions when a fit parent is available.  Troxel
v. Granville, 530 U.S.
57 (2000)


A child has a constitutionally protected
interest in the companionship and society of his or her parent.  Ward
v. San Jose (9th
Cir. 1992


Children have standing to sue for their
removal after they reach the age of majority.
Children have a constitutional right to live with their parents without
government interference.  Brokaw v. Mercer County
(7th Cir. 2000


The private, fundamental liberty interest
involved in retaining custody of one’s child and the integrity of one’s family
is of the greatest importance.  Weller v. Dept. of Social Services for Baltimore (4th
Cir. 1990


A state employee who withholds a child
from her family may infringe on the family’s liberty of familial
association.  Social workers can not
deliberately remove children from their parents and place them with foster
caregivers when the officials reasonably should have known such an action would
cause harm to the child’s mental or physical health.  K.H.
through Murphy v. Morgan (7th Cir. 1990


The forced separation of parent from
child, even for a short time (in this case 18 hours); represent a serious
infringement upon the rights of both.  J.B. v. Washington County
(10th Cir. 1997

Absent extraordinary circumstances, a
parent has a liberty interest in familial association and privacy that cannot
be violated without adequate pre-deprivation procedures.  Malik
v. Arapahoe Cty. Dept. of Social Services (10 Cir. 1999


Parent interest is of “the highest order,”
and the court recognizes “the vital importance of curbing overzealous suspicion
and intervention on the part of health care professionals and government
officials.”  Thomason v. Scan Volunteer Services, Inc. (8th Cir. 1996)






Police officers and social workers are not
immune from coercing or forcing entry into a person’s home without a search
warrant.  Calabretta v. Floyd (9th Cir. 1999)


The mere possibility of danger does not
constitute an emergency or exigent circumstance that would justify a forced
warrantless entry and a warrantless seizure of a child.  Hurlman
v. Rice (2nd Cir. 1991


A police officer and a social worker may
not conduct a warrantless search or seizure in a suspected child abuse case
absent exigent circumstances.  Defendants
must have reason to believe that life or limb is in immediate jeopardy and that
the intrusion is reasonable necessary to alleviate the threat.  Searches and seizures in investigation of a
child neglect or child abuse case at a home are governed by the same principles
as other searches and seizures at a home.
Good v. Dauphin County
Social Services (3rd Cir. 1989


The Fourth Amendment protection against
unreasonable searches and seizures extends beyond criminal investigations and
includes conduct by social workers in the context of a child neglect/abuse
investigation.  Lenz v. Winburn (11th Cir. 1995)

The protection offered by the Fourth
Amendment and by our laws does not exhaust itself once a warrant is
obtained.  The concern for the privacy,
the safety, and the property of our citizens continues and is reflected in
knock and announce requirements.  United
v. Becker, 929 F.2d 9th Cir.1991)


Making false statements to obtain a
warrant, when the false statements were necessary to the finding of probable
cause on which the warrant was based, violates the Fourth Amendment’s warrant
requirement.  The Warrant Clause
contemplates that the warrant applicant be truthful: “no warrant shall issue,
but on probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.”  Deliberate falsehood or reckless disregard
for the truth violates the Warrant Clause.
An officer who obtains a warrant through material false statements which
result in an unconstitutional seizure may be held liable personally for his
actions under § 1983.  This warrant
application is materially false or made in reckless disregard for the Fourth
Amendment’s Warrant Clause.  A search
must not exceed the scope of the search authorized in a warrant.  By limiting the authorization to search to
the specific areas and things for which there is probable cause to search, the
Fourth Amendment’s requirement ensures that the search will be carefully
tailored to its justifications.
Consequently, it will not take on the character of the wide-ranging
exploratory searches the Framers of the Constitution intended to prohibit.  There is a requirement that the police
identify themselves to the subject of a search, absent exigent circumstances.  Aponte
Matos v. Toledo
Davilla (1st Cir. 1998






Child’s four-month separation from his
parents could be challenged under substantive due process.  Sham procedures don’t constitute true
procedural due process.  Brokaw v. Mercer County
(7th Cir 2000


Post-deprivation remedies do not provide
due process if pre-deprivation remedies are practicable.  Bendiburg
v. Dempsey (11th Cir. 1990


Children placed in a private foster home
have substantive due process rights to personal security and bodily integrity.  Yvonne
L. v. New Mexico
Dept. of Human Services (10th Cir. 1992


When the state places a child into
state-regulated foster care, the state has duties and the failure to perform
such duties may create liability under § 1983.
Liability may attach when the state has taken custody of a child,
regardless of whether the child came to stay with a family on his own which was
not an officially approved foster family.
Nicini v. Morra (3rd
Cir. 2000


A social worker who received a telephone
accusation of abuse and threatened to remove a child from the home unless the
father himself left and who did not have grounds to believe the child was in
imminent danger of being abused engaged in an arbitrary abuse of governmental
power in ordering the father to leave.  Croft v. Westmoreland Cty. Children and
Youth Services (3rd Cir. 1997


Plaintiff’s were arguable deprived of
their right to procedural due process because the intentional use of fraudulent
evidence into the procedures used by the state denied them the fight to
fundamentally fair procedures before having their child removed, a right
included in Procedural Due Process.  Morris v. Dearborne (5th Cir.


When the state deprives parents and
children of their right to familial integrity, even in an emergency situation,
the burden is on the state to initiate prompt judicial proceedings for a
post-deprivation hearing, and it is irrelevant that a parent could have hired
counsel to force a hearing.  K.H. through Murphy v. Morgan, (7th
Cir. 1990


When the state places a child in a foster
home it has an obligation to provide adequate medical care, protection, and
supervision.  Norfleet v. Arkansas
Dept. of Human Services, (8th Cir. 1993


Children may not be removed from their home
by police officers or social workers without notice and a hearing unless the
officials have a reasonable belief that the children were in imminent
danger.  Ram v. Rubin, (9th Cir. 1997)


Absent extraordinary circumstances, a
parent has a liberty interest in familial association and privacy that cannot
be violated without adequate pre-deprivation procedures.  An ex parte hearing based on
misrepresentation and omission does not constitute notice and an opportunity to
be heard.  Procurement of an order to
seize a child through distortion, misrepresentation and/or omission is a
violation of the Forth Amendment.
Parents may assert their children’s Fourth Amendment claim on behalf of
their children as well as asserting their own Fourteenth Amendment claim.  Malik
v.Arapahoe Cty. Dept. of Social Services, (10th Cir. 1999


Plaintiff’s clearly established right to
meaningful access to the courts would be violated by suppression of evidence
and failure to report evidence.  Chrissy v. Mississippi Dept. of Public Welfare, (5th
Cir. 1991


Mother had a clearly established right to
an adequate, prompt post-deprivation hearing.
A 17-day period prior to the hearing was not prompt hearing.  Whisman
V. Rinehart, (8th Cir. 1997






Police officers or social workers may not
“pick up” a child without an investigation or court order, absent an
emergency.  Parental consent is required
to take children for medical exams, or an overriding order from the court after
parents have been heard.  Wallis v. Spencer, (9th Cir


Child removals are “seizures” under the
Fourth Amendment.  Seizure is
unconstitutional without court order or exigent circumstances.  Court order obtained based on knowingly false
information violates Fourth Amendment.  Brokaw v. Mercer County,
(7th Cir. 2000


Defendant should’ve investigated further
prior to ordering seizure of children based on information he had
overheard.  Hurlman v. Rice, (2nd Cir. 1991)


Police officer and social worker may not
conduct a warrantless search or seizure in a suspected abuse case absent
exigent circumstances.  Defendants must
have reason to believe that life or limb is in immediate jeopardy and that the
intrusion is reasonably necessary to alleviate the threat.  Searches and seizures in investigation of a
child neglect or child abuse case at a home are governed by the same principles
as other searches and seizures at a home.
Good v. Dauphin County
Social Services, (3rd Cir. 1989


Defendants could not lawfully seize a child
without a warrant or the existence of probable cause to believe the child was
in imminent danger of harm.  Where police
were not informed of any abuse of the child prior to arriving at caretaker’s
home and found no evidence of abuse while there, seizure of the child was not
objectively reasonable and violated the clearly established Fourth Amendment
rights of the child.  Wooley v. City of Baton Rouge, (5th Cir. 2000)


For purposes of the Fourth Amendment, a
“seizure” of a person is a situation in which a reasonable person would feel
that he is not free to leave, and also either actually yields to a show of
authority from police or social workers or is physically touched by
police.  Persons may not be “seized”
without a court order or being placed under arrest.  California v. Hodari, 499 U.S. 621 (1991)


Where the standard for a seizure or search
is probable cause, then there must be particularized information with respect
to a specific person.  This requirement
cannot be undercut or avoided simply by pointing to the fact that
coincidentally there exists probable cause to arrest or to search or to seize
another person or to search a place where the person may happen to be.  Yabarra
v. Illinois,
44 U.S.
85 (1979


An officer who obtains a warrant through
material false statements which result in an unconstitutional seizure may be
held liable personally for his actions under § 1983.  Aponte
Matos v. Toledo
Davilla, 1st Cir. 1998






Social workers (and other government
employees) may be sued for deprivation of civil rights under 42 U.S.C. § 1983
if they are named in their ‘official and individual capacity’.  Hafer
v. Melo, (S.Ct. 1991


State law cannot provide immunity from
suit for Federal civil rights violations.
State law providing immunity from suit for child abuse investigators has
no application to suits under § 1983.  Wallis v. Spencer, (9th Cir.


If the law was clearly established at the
time the action occurred, a police officer is not entitled to assert the
defense of qualified immunity based on good faith since a reasonably competent
public official should know the law governing his or her conduct.  Harlow
v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S.
800, 818 (1982


Immunity is defeated if the official took
the complained of action with malicious intention to cause a deprivation of
rights, or the official violated clearly established statutory or
constitutional rights of which a reasonable person would have known.  McCord
v. Maggio, (5th Cir. 1991


A defendant in a civil rights case is not
entitled to any immunity if he or she gave false information either in support
of an application for a search warrant or in presenting evidence to a
prosecutor on which the prosecutor based his or her charge against the
plaintiff.  Young v. Biggers, (5th Cir. 1991)


Police officer was not entitled to
absolute immunity for her role in procurement of a court order placing a child
in state custody where there was evidence officer spoke with the social worker
prior to social worker’s conversation with the magistrate and there was evidence
that described the collaborative worker of the two defendants in creating a
“plan of action” to deal with the situation.
Officer’s acts were investigative and involved more that merely carrying
out a judicial order.  Malik v. Arapahoe Cty. Dept. of Social
Services, (10th Cir. 1999


Individuals aren’t immune for the results
of their official conduct simply because they were enforcing policies or
orders.  Where a statute authorizes
official conduct which is patently violation of fundamental constitutional
principles, an officer who enforces that statute is not entitled to qualified
immunity.  Grossman v. City of Portland,
(9th Cir. (1994


Social workers were not entitled to
absolute immunity for pleadings filed to obtain a pick-up order for temporary
custody prior to formal petition being filed.
Social workers were not entitled to absolute immunity where department
policy was for social workers to report findings of neglect or abuse to other
authorities for further investigation or initiation of court proceedings.  Social workers investigating claims of child
abuse are entitled only to qualified immunity.
Assisting in the use of information known to be false to further an investigation
is not subject to absolute immunity.
Social workers are not entitled to qualified immunity on claims they
deceived judicial officers in obtaining a custody order or deliberately or
recklessly incorporated known falsehoods into their reports, criminal
complaints and applications.  Use of
information known to be false is not reasonable, and acts of deliberate falsity
or reckless disregard of the truth are not entitled to qualified immunity.  No qualified immunity is available for
incorporating allegations into the report or application where official had no
reasonable basis to assume the allegations were true at the time the document
was prepared.  Snell v. Tunnel, (10 Cir. 1990)


Police officer is not entitled to absolute
immunity, only qualified immunity, to claim that he caused plaintiff to be
unlawfully arrested by presenting judge with an affidavit that failed to
establish probable cause.  Malley v. Briggs, S.Ct. 1986)


Defendants were not entitled to
prosecutorial immunity where complaint was based on failure to investigate,
detaining minor child, and an inordinate delay in filing court proceedings,
because such actions did not aid in the presentation of a case to the juvenile
court.  Whisman v. Rinehart, (8th Cir. 1997)


Case worker who intentionally or
recklessly withheld potentially exculpatory information from an adjudicated
delinquent or from the court itself was not entitled to qualified immunity.  Germany v. Vance, (1st Cir. 1989)


Defendant was not entitled to qualified
immunity or summary judgment because he should’ve investigated further prior to
ordering seizure of children based on information he had overheard.  Hurlman
v. Rice, (2nd Cir. 1991


Defendants were not entitled to qualified
immunity for conducting warrantless search of home during a child abuse
investigation where exigent circumstances were not present.  Good
v. Dauphin County Social Services, (3rd
Cir 1989


Social workers were not entitled to
absolute immunity where no court order commanded them to place plaintiff with
particular foster caregivers.  K.H through Murphy v. Morgan, (7th
Cir. 1991






Paris Adult Theater v. Slaton, 413 US 49, 65 (1973)

this case, the Court includes the right of parents to rear children among
rights “deemed fundamental.”  Our prior
decisions recognizing a right to privacy guaranteed by the 14th Amendment
included only personal rights that can be deemed fundamental or implicit
in the concept of ordered liberty . . . This privacy right encompasses and
protects the personal intimacies of the home, the family, marriage, motherhood,
procreation, and child rearing . . . cf . . . Pierce v. Society of
Sisters; Meyer v. Nebraska
. . . nothing, however, in this Court’s
decisions intimates that there is any fundamental privacy right implicit in the
concept of ordered liberty to watch obscene movies and places of public
accommodation. [emphasis supplied]

Carey v. Population Services International,  431 US 678, 684-686 (1977)

Once again, the Court includes the right
of parents in the area of “child rearing and education” to be a liberty
interest protected by the Fourteenth Amendment, requiring an application of the
“compelling interest test.”  Although the
Constitution does not explicitly mention any right of privacy, the Court has recognized
that one aspect of the liberty protected by the Due Process Clause of
the 14th Amendment is a “right of personal privacy or a guarantee of certain
areas or zones of privacy . . . This right of personal privacy includes the
interest and independence in making certain kinds of important decisions . . .
While the outer limits of this aspect of privacy have not been marked by the
Court, it is clear that among the decisions that an individual may make without
unjustified government interference are personal decisions relating to marriage
. . . family relationships, Prince v. Massachusetts, 321 US
158 (1944
); and child rearing and education, Pierce v. Society
of Sisters
, 268 US 510 (1925); Meyer v. Nebraska,
262 US 390 (1923
).’ [emphasis supplied]


The Court continued by explaining that
these rights are not absolute and, certain state interests . . . may at some
point become sufficiently compelling to sustain regulation of the factors that
govern the abortion decision . . . Compelling is, of course, the key word;
where decisions as fundamental as whether to bear or beget a child is involved,
regulations imposing a burden on it may be justified only by a compelling
state interest
, and must be narrowly drawn to express only those interests.  [emphasis supplied]

Maher v. Roe, 432 US 464, 476-479 (1977)

We conclude that the Connecticut
regulation does not impinge on the fundamental right recognized in Roe
… There is a basic difference between direct state interference with a
protected activity and state encouragement of an alternative activity consonant
with legislative policy … This distinction is implicit in two cases cited in Roe
in support of the pregnant woman’s right under the 14th Amendment.  In Meyer v. Nebraska. . . the Court
held that the teacher’s right thus to teach and the right of parents to engage
in so to instruct their children were within the liberty of the 14th
. . . In Pierce v. Society of Sisters . . . the Court
relied on Meyer . . . reasoning that the 14th Amendment’s concept of
excludes any general power of the State to standardize its children
by forcing them to accept instruction from public teachers only.  The Court held that the law unreasonably
interfered with the liberty of parents and guardians to direct the upbringing
and education of the children under their control

Both cases
invalidated substantial restrictions of constitutionally protected liberty
in Meyer, the parent’s right to have his child taught a
particular foreign language; in Pierce, the parent’s right to choose
private rather than public school education.
But neither case denied to a state the policy choice of encouraging the
preferred course of action … Pierce casts no shadow over a state’s
power to favor public education by funding it — a policy choice pursued in some
States for more than a century … Indeed in Norwood v. Harrison,
413 US 455, 462, (1973
), we explicitly rejected the argument that Pierce
established a “right of private or parochial schools to share with the public schools
in state largesse,” noting that “It is one thing to say that a state may not
prohibit the maintenance of private schools and quite another to say that such
schools must as a matter of equal protection receive state aid” … We think it
abundantly clear that a state is not required to show a compelling interest for
its policy choice to favor a normal childbirth anymore than a state must so
justify its election to fund public, but not private education.  [emphasis supplied]


Although the Maher decision unquestionably
recognizes parents’ rights as fundamental rights, the Court has clearly
indicated that private schools do not have a fundamental right to state aid,
nor must a state satisfy the compelling interest test if it chooses not to
give private schools state aid.  The
Parental Rights and Responsibilities Act simply reaffirms the right of parents
to choose private education as fundamental, but it does not make the right to
receive public funds a fundamental right.
The PRRA, therefore, does not in any way promote or strengthen the
concept of educational vouchers.

Parham v. J.R., 442 US 584, 602-606 (1979).

This case involves parent’s rights to make
medical decisions regarding their children’s mental health.  The lower Court had ruled that Georgia’s statutory
scheme of allowing children to be subject to treatment in the state’s mental
health facilities violated the Constitution because it did not adequately
protect children’s due process rights.  The
Supreme Court reversed this decision upholding the legal presumption that
parents act in their children’s best interest.
The Court ruled:


Our jurisprudence historically has
reflected Western civilization concepts of the family as a unit with broad
parental authority over minor children. Our cases have consistently followed
that course; our constitutional system long ago rejected any notion that a
child is “the mere creature of the State” and, on the contrary, asserted that parents
generally “have the right, coupled with the high duty, to recognize and prepare
[their children] for additional obligations.”
Pierce v. Society of
, 268 U.S. 510, 535 (1925) … [other citations omitted]
. . . The law’s concept of the family rests on a presumption that parents
possess what a child lacks in maturity, experience, and capacity for judgment
required for making life’s difficult decisions.
More important,
historically it has been recognized that natural bonds of affection lead
parents to act in the best interests of their children. 1 W. Blackstone,
Commentaries 447; 2 J. Kent, Commentaries on American Law 190.  As with so many other legal presumptions,
experience and reality may rebut what the law accepts as a starting point; the
incidence of child neglect and abuse cases attests to this. That some parents
“may at times be acting against the interests of their children” … creates a
basis for caution, but it is hardly a reason to discard wholesale those pages
of human experience that teach that parents generally do act in the child’s
best interest … The statist notion that governmental power should supersede
parental authority in all cases because some parents abuse and
neglect children is repugnant to American tradition.  [emphasis supplied]

Parental rights
are clearly upheld in this decision recognizing the rights of parents to make
health decisions for their children.  The
Court continues by explaining the balancing that must take place:

Nonetheless, we have recognized that a state is not
without constitutional control over parental discretion in dealing with children
when their physical or mental health is jeopardized (See Wisconsin v. Yoder;
Prince v. Massachusetts
).  Moreover,
the Court recently declared unconstitutional a state statute that granted
parents an absolute veto over a minor child’s decisions to have an abortion, Planned
Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth
, 428 US 52 (1976),
Appellees urged that these precedents limiting the traditional rights of
parents, if viewed in the context of a liberty interest of the child and the
likelihood of parental abuse, require us to hold that parent’s decision to have
a child admitted to a mental hospital must be subjected to an exacting
constitutional scrutiny,
including a formal, adversary, pre-admission


Appellees’ argument, however, sweeps too
broadly.  Simply because the decision of
a parent is not agreeable to a child, or because it involves risks does not
automatically transfer power to make that decision from the parents to some
agency or officer of the state.  The same
characterizations can be made for a tonsillectomy, appendectomy, or other
medical procedure.  Most children, even
in adolescence, simply are not able to make sound judgments concerning many
decisions, including their need for medical care or treatment.  Parents can and must make those judgments …
we cannot assume that the result in Meyer v. Nebraska, supra, and Pierce
v. Society of Sisters
, supra, would have been different if the children
there had announced or preference to go to a public, rather that a church
school.  The fact that a child may balk
at hospitalization or complain about a parental refusal to provide cosmetic
surgery does not diminish the parent’s authority to decide what is best for the
child (See generally Goldstein, Medical Case for the Child at Risk: on State
Supervention of Parental Autonomy
, 86 Yale LJ 645, 664-668 (1977); Bennett,
Allocation of Child Medical Care Decision — Making Authority: A Suggested
Interest Analyses
, 62 Va LR ev 285, 308 (1976).  Neither state officials nor federal Courts
are equipped to review such parental decisions.
[emphasis supplied]


Therefore, it is clear that the Court is
recognizing parents as having the right to make judgments concerning their
children who are not able to make sound decisions, including their need for
medical care.  A parent’s authority to
decide what is best for the child in the areas of medical treatment cannot be
diminished simply because a child disagrees.
A parent’s right must be protected and not simply transferred to some
state agency.

City of Akron v. Akron Center
for Reproductive Health Inc., 462 US 416, 461 (1983)

case includes, in a long list of protected liberties and fundamental rights,
the parental rights guaranteed under Pierce and Meyer.  The Court indicated a compelling interest
test must be applied.  Central among
these protected liberties is an individual’s freedom of personal choice in
matters of marriage and family life … RoeGriswoldPierce
v. Society of Sisters
Meyer v. Nebraska … But restrictive
state regulation of the right to choose abortion as with other fundamental
rights subject to searching judicial examination, must be supported by a
compelling state interest. 

Santosky v. Kramer, 455 US 745, 753 (1982)

This case involved the Appellate Division
of the New York Supreme Court affirming the application of the preponderance of
the evidence standard as proper and constitutional in ruling that the parent’s
rights are permanently terminated.  The
U.S. Supreme Court, however, vacated the lower Court decision, holding that due
process as required under the 14th Amendment in this case required proof by
clear and convincing evidence rather than merely a preponderance of the

Court, in reaching their decision, made it clear that parents’ rights as
outlined in Pierce and Meyer are fundamental and specially
protected under the Fourteenth Amendment.
The Court began by quoting another Supreme Court case:

In Lassiter [Lassiter v.
Department of Social Services
, 452 US 18, 37 (1981)], it was “not
disputed that state intervention to terminate the relationship between a parent
and a child must be accomplished by procedures meeting the requisites of the
Due Process Clause”. . . The absence of dispute reflected this Court’s
historical recognition that freedom of personal choice in matters of family
life is a fundamental liberty interest protected by the 14th Amendment
Pierce v. Society of SistersMeyer v. Nebraska.

fundamental liberty interest of natural parents in the care, custody,
and management of their child does not evaporate simply because they have not
been model parents or have lost temporary custody of their child to the state
… When the state moves to destroy weakened familial bonds, it must provide
the parents with fundamentally fair procedures.
[emphasis supplied]

Lehr v. Robertson, 463 US 248, 257-258 (1983)

In this case, the U.S. Supreme Court
upheld a decision against a natural father’s rights under the Due Process and
Equal Protection Clauses since he did not have any significant custodial,
personal, or financial relationship with the child.  The natural father was challenging an
adoption.  The Supreme Court stated: In
some cases, however, this Court has held that the federal constitution
supersedes state law and provides even greater protection for certain formal
family relationships.  In those cases …
the Court has emphasized the paramount interest in the welfare of children and
has noted that the rights of the parents are a counterpart of the
responsibilities they have assumed.  Thus,
the liberty of parents to control the education of their children that was
vindicated in Meyer v. Nebraska … and Pierce v. Society of Sisters

… was described as a “right coupled with the high duty to recognize and
prepare the child for additional obligations” … The linkage between parental
duty and parental right was stressed again in Prince v. Massachusetts
… The Court declared it a cardinal principle “that the custody, care and
nurture of the child reside first in the parents whose primary function
and freedom include preparation for obligations the state can neither supply
nor hinder.” In these cases, the Court has found that the relationship of love
and duty in a recognized family unit is an interest in liberty entitled to
Constitutional protection
… “State intervention to terminate such a
relationship … must be accomplished by procedures meeting the requisites of
the Due Process Clause” Santosky v. Kramer … [emphasis

is clear by the above case that parental rights are to be treated as
fundamental and cannot be taken away without meeting the constitutional
requirement of due process.

Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of
Duarte, 481 US
537 (1987)

this case, a Californian civil rights statute was held not to violate the First
Amendment by requiring an all male non-profit club to admit women to membership.  The Court concluded that parents’ rights in
child rearing and education are included as fundamental elements of liberty
protected by the Bill of Rights.

The Court has recognized that the freedom
to enter into and carry on certain intimate or private relationships is a fundamental
element of liberty protected by the Bill of Rights
… the intimate
relationships to which we have accorded Constitutional protection include
marriage … the begetting and bearing of children, child rearing and
education.  Pierce v. Society of
…  [emphasis supplied]


H. v. Gerald, 491 U.S.
110 (1989)

a paternity suit, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled: It is an established part of
our constitution jurisprudence that the term liberty in the Due Process Clause
extends beyond freedom from physical restraint.
See, e.g. Pierce v. Society of SistersMeyer v.
… In an attempt to limit and guide interpretation of the
Clause, we have insisted not merely that the interest denominated as a
“liberty” be “fundamental”
(a concept that, in isolation, is hard to
objectify), but also that it be an interest traditionally protected by our
As we have put it, the Due
Process Clause affords only those protections “so rooted in the traditions and
conscience of our people as to be ranked as fundamentalSnyder v.
, 291 US
97, 105 (1934
).  [emphasis
supplied]  The Court explicitly included
the parental rights under Pierce and Meyer as “fundamental” and
interests “traditionally protected by our society.”

Division of Oregon
v. Smith, 494 U.S.
872 (1990)

of the more recent decisions which upholds the right of parents is Employment
Division of Oregon v. Smith
, which involved two Indians who were fired
from a private drug rehabilitation organization because they ingested “peyote,”
a hallucinogenic drug as part of their religious beliefs.  When they sought unemployment compensation, they
were denied because they were discharged for “misconduct.”

Indians appealed to the Oregon Court of Appeals who reversed on the grounds
that they had the right to freely exercise their religious beliefs by taking
drugs.  Of course, as expected, the U.S.
Supreme Court reversed the case and found that the First Amendment did not
protect drug use.  So what does the case
have to do with parental rights?

the Court ruled against the Indians, it then analyzed the application of the
Free Exercise Clause generally.  The
Court wrongly decided to throw out the Free Exercise Clause as a defense to any
“neutral” law that might violate an individual’s religious convictions.  In the process of destroying religious
freedom, the Court went out of its way to say that the parents’ rights to
control the education of their children is still a fundamental right.  The Court declared that the “compelling
interest test” is still applicable, not to the Free Exercise Clause alone:

the Free Exercise Clause in conjunction with other constitutional
such as … the right of parents, acknowledged in Pierce
v. Society of Sisters
, 268 U.S. 510 (1925), to direct the
education of their children
, see Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406
U.S.205 (1972
) invalidating compulsory-attendance laws as applied to Amish
parents who refused on religious grounds to send their children to school.19 [emphasis supplied]

other words, under this precedent, parents’ rights to control the education of
their children is considered a “constitutionally protected right” which
requires the application of the compelling interest test.  The Court in Smith quoted its previous
case of Wisconsin v. Yoder:

Yoder said that “The Court’s holding in Pierce
stands as a charter for the rights of parents to direct the religious
upbringing of their children.  And when
the interests of parenthood are combined with a free exercise claim … more
than merely a reasonable relationship
to some purpose within the competency
of the State is required to sustain the validity of the State’s requirement
under the First Amendment.” 406 U.S.,
at 233.20 [emphasis supplied]


Instead of merely showing that a
regulation conflicting with parents’ rights is reasonable, the state must,
therefore, reach the higher standard of the “compelling interest test,” which
requires the state to prove its regulation to be the least restrictive means.

Hodgson v. Minnesota,
497 U.S.
417 (1990)

Hodgson the Court found that parental rights not only are protected
under the First and Fourteenth Amendments as fundamental and more important
than property rights, but that they are “deemed essential.”

family has a privacy interest in the upbringing and education of children and
the intimacies of the marital relationship which is protected by the
Constitution against undue state interference.
See Wisconsin v
, 7 406 US 205
…  The statist notion that governmental
power should supersede parental authority in all cases because some parents
abuse and neglect children is repugnant to American tradition.” In other words,
under this precedent, parents’ rights to control the education of their
children is considered a “constitutionally protected right” which requires the
application of the compelling interest test.
The Court in Smith quoted its previous case of Wisconsin v.

Yoder said that “The Court’s holding in Pierce
stands as a charter for the rights of parents to direct the religious
upbringing of their children.  And when
the interests of parenthood are combined with a free exercise claim …  more than merely a reasonable relationship
to some purpose within the competency of the State is required to sustain the
validity of the State’s requirement under the First Amendment.” 406 U.S., at 233.20 [emphasis supplied]


Instead of merely showing that a
regulation conflicting with parents’ rights is reasonable, the state must,
therefore, reach the higher standard of the “compelling interest test,” which
requires the state to prove its regulation to be the least restrictive means.

Parham, 442 US, at 603, [other citations omitted].  We have long held that there exists a
“private realm of family life which the state cannot enter.”
Prince v

natural parent who has demonstrated sufficient commitment to his or her
children is thereafter entitled to raise the children free from undue state
interference.  As Justice White explained
in his opinion of the Court in Stanley
v Illinois
405 US 645 (1972
) [other cites omitted]:

court has frequently emphasized the importance of the family.  The rights to conceive and to raise
one’s children have been deemed ‘essential,’
Meyer v Nebraska,
… ‘basic civil rights of man,’ Skinner v Oklahoma, 316 US
535, 541 (1942
), and ‘[r]ights far more precious … than property rights,’
May v Anderson, 345 US 528, 533 (1953) …  The integrity of the family unit has found
protection in the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, Meyer v
, supra.” [emphasis supplied]

Court leaves no room for doubt as to the importance and protection of the
rights of parents.

H.L. v. Matheson, 450 US 398, 410 (1991)

In this case, the Supreme Court recognized
the parents’ right to know about their child seeking an abortion.  The Court stated: In addition, constitutional
interpretation has consistently recognized that the parents’ claim to authority
in their own household to direct the rearing of their children is basic in the
structure of our society.


Ginsberg v. New York, 390 US 629 (1968) …
We have recognized on numerous occasions that the relationship between
the parent and the child is Constitutionally protected (Wisconsin v. Yoder,
Stanley v. Illinois, Meyer v. Nebraska
) …
“It is cardinal with us that the custody, care, and nurture of the child
reside first in the parents, whose primary function and freedom includes
preparation for obligations the state can neither supply, nor hinder.” [Quoting
Prince v. Massachusetts,
321 US
158, 166, (1944
)].  See also Parham
v. J.R.; Pierce v. Society of Sisters
…  We have recognized that parents have an
important “guiding role” to play in the upbringing of their children, Bellotti
, 443 US 633-639 … which presumptively includes counseling them on
important decisions.

Court clearly upholds the parent’s right to know in the area of minor children
making medical decisions.

Vernonia School
47J v. Acton, 132 L.Ed.2d 564, 115 S.Ct.
2386 (1995)

Vernonia the Court strengthened parental rights by approaching the issue
from a different point of view.  They
reasoned that children do not have many of the rights accorded citizens, and in
lack thereof, parents and guardians possess and exercise those rights and
authorities in the child’s best interest:

at common law, and still today, unemancipated minors lack some of the most
fundamental rights of self-determination—including even the right of liberty in
its narrow sense, i.e., the right to come and go at will.  They are subject, even as to their physical
freedom, to the control of their parents or guardians.  See Am Jur 2d, Parent and Child § 10 (1987).


Troxel v. Granville, 530 U.S. 57 (2000)

In this case, the United States Supreme
Court issued a landmark opinion on parental liberty.  The case involved a Washington State statute
which provided that a “court may order visitation rights for any person
when visitation may serve the best interests of the child, whether or not there
has been any change of circumstances.” Wash. Rev. Code § 26.10.160(3).  The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Washington statute
“unconstitutionally interferes with the fundamental right of parents to
rear their children.” The Court went on to examine its treatment of
parental rights in previous cases: In subsequent cases also, we have recognized
the fundamental right of parents to make decisions concerning the care,
custody, and control of their children…Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205,
232, 32 L. Ed. 2d 15, 92 S. Ct. 1526 (1972
(“The history and
culture of Western civilization reflect a strong tradition of parental concern
for the nurture and this case clearly upholds parental rights.  In essence, this decision means that the
government may not infringe parents’ right to direct the education and
upbringing of their children unless it can show that it is using the least
restrictive means to achieve a compelling governmental interest.


v. Washington
No. 02-9410. Argued November
10, 2003

Decided March 8, 2004

certiorari to the Supreme Court of Washington

was tried for assault and attempted murder.
The State sought to introduce a recorded statement that petitioner’s
wife Sylvia had made during police interrogation, as evidence that the stabbing
was not in self-defense.  Sylvia did not
testify at trial because of Washington’s
marital privilege.  Petitioner argued
that admitting the evidence would violate his Sixth Amendment right to be
“confronted with the witnesses against him.” Under Ohio
v. Roberts, 448 U. S. 56
, that right does not bar
admission of an unavailable witness’s statement against a criminal defendant if
the statement bears “adequate ‘indicia of reliability,’ ” a test
met when the evidence either falls within a “firmly rooted hearsay
exception” or bears “particularized guarantees of
trustworthiness.” Id.,
at 66.  The trial court admitted the
statement on the latter ground.  The
State Supreme Court upheld the conviction, deeming the statement reliable
because it was nearly identical to, i.e., interlocked with,
petitioner’s own statement to the police, in that both were ambiguous as to
whether the victim had drawn a weapon before petitioner assaulted him.

Held: The State’s use of Sylvia’s statement violated
the Confrontation Clause because, where testimonial statements are at issue,
the only indicium of reliability sufficient to satisfy constitutional demands
is confrontation.  Pp. 5-33.

(a) The
Confrontation Clause’s text does not alone resolve this case, so this Court
turns to the Clause’s historical background.
That history supports two principles.
First, the principal evil at which the Clause was directed was the
civil-law mode of criminal procedure, particularly the use of ex parte
examinations as evidence against the accused.
The Clause’s primary object is testimonial hearsay, and interrogations
by law enforcement officers fall squarely within that class.  Second, the Framers would not have allowed
admission of testimonial statements of a witness who did not appear at trial
unless he was unavailable to testify and the defendant had had a prior
opportunity for cross-examination.  English
authorities and early state cases indicate that this was the common law at the
time of the founding.  And the
“right … to be confronted with the witnesses against him,” Amdt. 6,
is most naturally read as a reference to the common-law right of confrontation,
admitting only those exceptions established at the time of the founding.  See Mattox v. United States,
156 U. S. 237, 243.  Pp. 5-21

(b) This
Court’s decisions have generally remained faithful to the Confrontation
Clause’s original meaning.  See, e.g.,
Mattox, supra. 
Pp. 21-23.

(c) However,
the same cannot be said of the rationales of this Court’s more recent decisions.  See Roberts, supra, at 66The Roberts test departs from
historical principles because it admits statements consisting of ex parte
testimony upon a mere reliability finding.
Pp. 24-25.

(d) The
Confrontation Clause commands that reliability be assessed in a particular
manner: by testing in the crucible of cross-examination.  Roberts allows a jury to hear
evidence, untested by the adversary process, based on a mere judicial
determination of reliability, thus replacing the constitutionally prescribed
method of assessing reliability with a wholly foreign one.  Pp. 25-27.

(e) Roberts’
framework is unpredictable.  Whether
a statement is deemed reliable depends on which factors a judge considers and
how much weight he accords each of them.
However, the unpardonable vice of the Roberts test is its
demonstrated capacity to admit core testimonial statements that the
Confrontation Clause plainly meant to exclude.
Pp. 27-30.

(f) The
instant case is a self-contained demonstration of Roberts’
unpredictable and inconsistent application.
It also reveals Roberts’ failure to interpret the Constitution
in a way that secures its intended constraint on judicial discretion.  The Constitution prescribes the procedure for
determining the reliability of testimony in criminal trials, and this Court, no
less than the state courts, lacks authority to replace it with one of its own
devising.  Pp. 30-32.

147 Wash.2d 424, 54
P. 3d 656, reversed and remanded.

delivered the opinion of the Court, in which Stevens, Kennedy,
Souter, Thomas, Ginsburg,
and Breyer, JJ., joined.  Rehnquist, C. J., filed an
opinion concurring in the judgment, in which O’Connor, J., joined.



Below are excerpts
of case law from state appellate and federal district courts and up to the U.S.  Supreme Court, all of which affirm, from one
perspective or another, the absolute Constitutional right of parents to
actually BE parents to their children.

rights of parents to the care, custody and nurture of their children is of such
character that it cannot be denied without violating those fundamental
principles of liberty and justice which lie at the base of all our civil and
political institutions, and such right is a fundamental right protected by this
amendment (First) and Amendments 5, 9, and 14.
Doe v. Irwin, 441 F Supp 1247; U.S. D.C. of Michigan, (1985).

The several states have no greater
power to restrain individual freedoms protected by the First Amendment than
does the Congress of the United
Wallace v. Jaffree, 105 S Ct
2479; 472 US
38, (1985)

Loss of First Amendment Freedoms, for
even minimal periods of time, unquestionably constitutes irreparable injury.  Though First Amendment rights are not
absolute, they may be curtailed only by interests of vital importance, the
burden of proving which rests on their government.  Elrod
v. Burns, 96 S Ct 2673; 427 US
347, (1976)

Law and court procedures that are
“fair on their faces” but administered “with an evil eye or a
heavy hand” was discriminatory and violates the equal protection clause of
the Fourteenth Amendment.  Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 US 356, (1886).

Even when blood relationships are
strained, parents retain vital interest in preventing irretrievable destruction
of their family life; if anything, persons faced with forced dissolution of
their parental rights have more critical need for procedural protections than
do those resisting state intervention into ongoing family affairs.  Santosky
v. Kramer, 102 S Ct 1388; 455 US
745, (1982)

Parents have a fundamental
constitutionally protected interest in continuity of legal bond with their
children.  Matter of Delaney, 617 P 2d 886, Oklahoma (1980). .

The liberty interest of the family
encompasses an interest in retaining custody of one’s children and, thus, a
state may not interfere with a parent’s custodial rights absent due process
protections.  Langton v. Maloney, 527 F Supp 538, D.C. Conn. (1981).

Parent’s right to custody of child is a
right encompassed within protection of this amendment which may not be
interfered with under guise of protecting public interest by legislative action
which is arbitrary or without reasonable relation to some purpose within
competency of state to effect.  Regenold v. Baby Fold, Inc., 369 NE 2d
858; 68 Ill 2d 419, appeal dismissed 98 S Ct 1598, 435 US 963, IL, (1977)

Parent’s interest in custody of her
children is a liberty interest which has received considerable constitutional
protection; a parent, who is deprived of custody of his or her child, even
though temporarily, suffers thereby grievous loss and such loss deserves
extensive due process protection.  In the Interest of Cooper, 621 P 2d 437;
5 Kansas App
Div 2d 584, (1980)

The Due Process Clause of the
Fourteenth Amendment requires that severance in the parent-child relationship
caused by the state occur only with rigorous protections for individual liberty
interests at stake.  Bell v. City of Milwaukee, 746 F 2d 1205; US Ct App 7th Cir WI,

Father enjoys the right to associate
with his children which is guaranteed by this amendment (First) as incorporated
in Amendment 14, or which is embodied in the concept of “liberty” as
that word is used in the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment and Equal
Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.
Mabra v. Schmidt, 356 F Supp
620; DC, WI (1973)

“Separated as our issue is from
that of the future interests of the children, we have before us the elemental
question whether a court of a state, where a mother is neither domiciled,
resident nor present, may cut off her immediate right to the care, custody,
management and companionship of her minor children without having jurisdiction
over her in person.  Rights far more
precious to appellant than property rights will be cut off if she is to be
bound by the Wisconsin award of custody.”
May v. Anderson, 345 US 528, 533; 73 S Ct 840, 843,

A parent’s right to care and
companionship of his or her children are so fundamental, as to be guaranteed
protection under the First, Ninth, and Fourteenth Amendments of the United
States Constitution.  In re: J.S. and C., 324 A 2d 90; supra 129 NJ Super,
at 489

The Court stressed, “the
parent-child relationship is an important interest that undeniably warrants
deference and, absent a powerful countervailing interest, protection.” A
parent’s interest in the companionship, care, custody and management of his or
her children rises to a constitutionally secured right, given the centrality of
family life as the focus for personal meaning and responsibility.  Stanley
v. Illinois,
405 US
645, 651; 92 S Ct 1208, (1972)

Parent’s rights have been recognized
as being “essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free man.”
Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 US 390; 43 S Ct 625, (1923).

The U.S. Supreme Court implied that
“a (once) married father who is separated or divorced from a mother and is
no longer living with his child” could not constitutionally be treated
differently from a currently married father living with his child.  Quilloin
v. Walcott, 98 S Ct 549; 434 US
246, 255^Q56, (1978)

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th
Circuit (California)
held that the parent-child relationship is a constitutionally protected liberty
interest.  (See; Declaration of
Independence –life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness and the 14th
Amendment of the United States Constitution — No state can deprive any person
of life, liberty or property without due process of law nor deny any person the
equal protection of the laws.) Kelson
v. Springfield,
767 F 2d 651; US Ct
App 9th Cir, (1985)

The parent-child relationship is a
liberty interest protected by the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment.  Bell v. City of Milwaukee, 746 f 2d 1205, 1242^Q45; US Ct App 7th Cir WI,

No bond is more precious and none
should be more zealously protected by the law as the bond between parent and
child.” Carson v. Elrod, 411 F
Supp 645, 649; DC E.D. VA (1976)

A parent’s right to the preservation
of his relationship with his child derives from the fact that the parent’s
achievement of a rich and rewarding life is likely to depend significantly on
his ability to participate in the rearing of his children.  A child’s corresponding right to protection
from interference in the relationship derives from the psychic importance to
him of being raised by a loving, responsible, reliable adult.  Franz
v. U.S.,
707 F 2d 582, 595^Q599; US Ct
App (1983)

A parent’s right to the custody of his
or her children is an element of “liberty” guaranteed by the 5th
Amendment and the 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution.  Matter
of Gentry, 369 NW 2d 889, MI App Div (1983)

Reality of private biases and possible
injury they might inflict were impermissible considerations under the Equal
Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.
Palmore v. Sidoti, 104 S Ct
1879; 466 US

Legislative classifications which
distributes benefits and burdens on the basis of gender carry the inherent risk
of reinforcing stereotypes about the proper place of women and their need for
special protection; thus, even statutes purportedly designed to compensate for
and ameliorate the effects of past discrimination against women must be
carefully tailored.  The state cannot be
permitted to classify on the basis of sex.
Orr v. Orr, 99 S Ct 1102; 440 US 268, (1979).

The United States Supreme Court held
that the “old notion” that “generally it is the man’s primary
responsibility to provide a home and its essentials” can no longer justify
a statute that discriminates on the basis of gender.  No longer is the female destined solely for
the home and the rearing of the family, and only the male for the marketplace
and the world of ideas.  Stanton v. Stanton,
421 US
7, 10; 95 S Ct 1373, 1376, (1975)

Judges must maintain a high standard
of judicial performance with particular emphasis upon conducting litigation
with scrupulous fairness and impartiality.
28 USCA § 2411; Pfizer v. Lord,
456 F.2d 532; cert denied 92 S Ct 2411; US Ct App MN, (1972)

State Judges, as well as federal, have
the responsibility to respect and protect persons from violations of federal
constitutional rights.  Gross v. State of Illinois, 312 F 2d 257; (1963).

The Constitution also protects
“the individual interest in avoiding disclosure of personal matters.”
Federal Courts (and State Courts), under Griswold can protect, under the
“life, liberty and pursuit of happiness” phrase of the Declaration of
Independence, the right of a man to enjoy the mutual care, company, love and
affection of his children, and this cannot be taken away from him without due
process of law.  There is a family right
to privacy which the state cannot invade or it becomes actionable for civil
rights damages.  Griswold v. Connecticut,
381 US
479, (1965)

The right of a parent not to be
deprived of parental rights without a showing of fitness, abandonment or
substantial neglect is so fundamental and basic as to rank among the rights
contained in this Amendment (Ninth) and Utah’s Constitution, Article 1 § 1.  In
re U.P., 648 P 2d 1364; Utah,

rights of parents to parent-child relationships are recognized and upheld.  Fantony
v. Fantony, 122 A 2d 593, (1956); Brennan v. Brennan, 454 A 2d 901, (1982)
.  State’s power to legislate, adjudicate and
administer all aspects of family law, including determinations of custodial;
and visitation rights, is subject to scrutiny by federal judiciary within reach
of due process and/or equal protection clauses of 14th Amendment…Fourteenth
Amendment applied to states through specific rights contained in the first
eight amendments of the Constitution which declares fundamental personal
rights…Fourteenth Amendment encompasses and applied to states those
preexisting fundamental rights recognized by the Ninth Amendment.  The Ninth Amendment acknowledged the prior
existence of fundamental rights with it: “The enumeration in the
Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage
others retained by the people.”

United States Supreme Court in a long line of decisions has recognized that
matters involving marriage, procreation, and the parent-child relationship are
among those fundamental “liberty” interests protected by the
Constitution.  Thus, the decision in Roe v. Wade, 410 US 113; 93 S Ct 705; 35
L Ed 2d 147, (1973)
, was recently described by the Supreme Court as
founded on the “Constitutional underpinning of … a recognition that the
“liberty” protected by the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment
includes not only the freedoms explicitly mentioned in the Bill of Rights, but
also a freedom of personal choice in certain matters of marriage and family
life.” The non-custodial divorced parent has no way to implement the
constitutionally protected right to maintain a parental relationship with his
child except through visitation.  To
acknowledge the protected status of the relationship as the majority does, and
yet deny protection under Title 42 USC § 1983, to visitation, which is the
exclusive means of effecting that right, is to negate the right completely.  Wise
v. Bravo, 666 F.2d 1328, (1981)


controversies affecting the custody of an infant, the interest and welfare of
the child is the primary and controlling question by which the court must be
guided.  This rule is based upon the theory that the state must perpetuate
itself, and good citizenship is essential to that end.  Though nature gives
to parents the right to the custody of their own children, and such right is
scarcely less sacred than the right to life and liberty, and is manifested in
all animal life, yet among mankind the necessity for government has forced the
recognition of the rule that the perpetuity of the state is the first
consideration, and parental authority itself is subordinate to this supreme
power.  It is recognized that:  ‘The moment a child is born it owes
allegiance to the government of the country of its birth, and is entitled to
the protection of that government.  And such government is obligated by
its duty of protection, to consult the welfare, comfort and interest of such
child in regulating its custody during the period of its minority.’   Mercein
v. People, 25 Wend.  (N. Y.) 64, 103, 35 Am. Dec. 653; McKercher v. Green,
13 Colo. App.
271, 58 Pac. 406
.  But as
government should never interfere with the natural rights of man, except only
when it is essential for the good of society, the state recognizes, and enforces,
the right which nature gives to parents [48 Colo. 466] to the custody of their
own children, and only supervenes with its sovereign power when the necessities

of the case require it.

experience of man has demonstrated that the best development of a young life is
within the sacred precincts of a home, the members of which are bound together
by ties entwined through ‘bone of their bone and flesh of their flesh'; that it
is in such homes and under such influences that the sweetest, purest, noblest,
and most attractive qualities of human nature, so essential to good
citizenship, are best nurtured and grow to wholesome fruition; that, when a
state is based and build upon such homes, it is strong in patriotism, courage,
and all the elements of the best civilization.  Accordingly these
recurring facts in the experience of man resulted in a presumption establishing
prima facie that parents are in every way qualified to have the care, custody,
and control of their own offspring, and that their welfare and interests are
best subserved under such control.  Thus, by natural law, by common law,
and, likewise, the statutes of this state, the natural parents are entitled to
the custody of their minor children, except when they are unsuitable persons to
be entrusted with their care, control, and education, or when some exceptional
circumstances appear which render such custody inimicable to the best interests
of the child.  While the right of a parent to the custody of its infant
child is therefore, in a sense, contingent, the right can never be lost or
taken away so long as the parent properly nurtures, maintains, and cares for
the child.  Wilson v. Mitchell, 111 P. 21, 25-26, 48 Colo. 454 (Colo. 1910)


U.S. Supreme Court has consistently protected parental rights, including it
among those rights deemed fundamental.  As
a fundamental right, parental liberty is to be protected by the highest
standard of review: the compelling interest test.  As can be seen from the cases described
above, parental rights have reached their highest level of protection in over
75 years.  The Court decisively confirmed
these rights in the recent case of Troxel v. Granville, which
should serve to maintain and protect parental rights for many years to come.

As long as CPS is allowed to have an
exaggerated view of their power andis  allowed by state officials and the courts to
exploit that power and abuse it against both children and parents, they will
both be continually harmed.  The
constitution is there for two primary reasons, 1) to restrict the power of the government
and 2) to protect the people from the government, not the government from the
people.  And the constitution is there to
prohibit certain activity from government officials and that prohibition does
not apply to one type or kind of official but to ANY government official
whether it is the police, CPS or FBI.





1983 places liability on ANY person who “subjects, or causes to be
subjected” another to a constitutional deprivation.  See 42 U.S.C. § 1983.  This language suggests that there are two
ways a defendant may be liable for a constitutional deprivation under § 1983:
(1) direct, personal involvement in the alleged constitutional violation on the
part of the defendant, or (2) actions or omissions that are not constitutional
violations in themselves, but foreseeably leads to a constitutional violation.  The Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
offered a most cogent discussion of this issue in Arnold v. International Bus. Machines Corp.,
637 F.2d 1350 (9th Cir. 1981

person ‘subjects’ another to the deprivation of a constitutional right, within
the meaning of section 1983, if he does an affirmative act, participates in
another’s affirmative acts, or omits to perform an act which he is legally
required to do that causes the deprivation of which complaint is made….
Moreover, personal participation is not the only predicate for section 1983
liability.  Anyone who “causes”
any citizen to be subjected to a constitutional deprivation is also liable
The requisite causal
connection can be established not only by some kind of direct personal
participation in the deprivation, but also by setting in motion a series of
acts by others which the actor knows or reasonably should know would cause
others to inflict the constitutional injury.
Id. at 1355 (emphasis added) (quoting Johnson
v. Duffy, 588 F.2d 740, 743-44 (9th Cir. 1978

supervisor is liable under § 1983 if s/he “does an affirmative act,
participates in another’s affirmative acts, or omits to perform an act which
[s/]he is legally required to do.” Causing constitutional injury.  Johnson
v. Duffy, 588 F. 2d 740, 743-44 (9th Cir. 1978
).  A supervisor is liable for “his own culpable
action or inaction in the training, supervision, or control of his
subordinates; for his acquiescence in the constitutional deprivation …; for
conduct that showed a reckless or callous indifference to the rights of
others.” Watkins v. City of Oakland, 145 F. 3d 1087,
1093 (9th Cir. 1997

supervisor can be liable in his individual capacity if “he set in motion a
series of acts by others, or knowingly refused to terminate a series of acts by
others, which he knew or reasonably should have known would cause others to
inflict the constitutional injury.” Larez
v. City of Los Angeles,
946 F. 2d 630, 646 (9th Cir. 1991
).  “Supervisory indifference or tacit
authorization of subordinates’ misconduct may be a causative factor in
constitutional injuries they inflict.” Slakan
v. Porter, 737 F. 2d 368, 373 (4th Cir. 1984
).  “We have explained the nature of the
causation required in cases of this kind in Johnson
v. Duffy, 588 F. 2d 740 (9th Cir. 1978
).  There, we held that for purposes of § 1983
liability the requisite causal chain can occur through the ‘setting in motion
[of] a series of acts by others which the actor knows or reasonably should know
would cause others to inflict the constitutional injury.’ Id. at 743-44.  There is little question here that Cooper and
Roderick should have known that falsely placing the blame for the initial Ruby
Ridge incident on Harris would lead to the type of constitutional injuries he
suffered.Harris v. Roderick,
126 F. 3d 1189 (9th Cir. 1997




            While a private citizen cannot
ordinarily be held liable under § 1983 because that statute requires action
under color of state law, if a private
citizen conspires with a state actor, then the private citizen is subject to §
1983 liability
Brokaw v. Mercer County, 235 F.3d 1000 (7th Cir 2001)
quoting Bowman v. City of Franklin, 980 F.2d 1104, 1107 (7th Cir.
)  “To establish § 1983
liability through a conspiracy theory, a plaintiff must demonstrate that: (1) a
state official and private individual(s) reached an understanding to deprive
the plaintiff of his constitutional rights, and (2) those individual(s) were
willful participants in joint activity with the State or its agents.” Fries v. Helsper, 146 F.3d 452, 457 (7th
Cir. 1998
) (internal quotation and citations omitted).  Not only did both Bonnie Maskery and the
state Defendants conspire to harm Mrs. Dutkiewicz because she practiced Wicca,
Maskery continued to conspire with state Defendants by manufacturing evidence
and lying in order to deny the Plaintiffs their due process rights to a fair
trial.  Plaintiff told state Defendants
in writing and over the phone that Maskery was a fraud and impersonating a therapist
prior to submitting the petition to the court yet the state Defendants
willfully filed the fraudulent petition.

this case, C.A.
alleged just such a conspiracy between Weir and Karen, and Deputy Sheriff James
Brokaw.  Specifically, C.A. asserted
that Weir and Karen conspired with James, who was a deputy sheriff, in July
1983 to file false allegations of child neglect in order to cause the DCFS to
remove C.A.
from his home and to thereby cause C.A.’s parents to divorce, because
of the religious beliefs and practices of C.A’s family.  [FN 12] While Weir and Karen claim that C.A.’s
allegations are too vague to withstand dismissal under 12(b)(6), C.A has
alleged all of the necessary facts: the who, what, when, why and how.  No more is required at this stage.”  Brokaw
v. Mercer County, 235 F.3d 1000 (7th
Cir 2001)

Weir and Karen seek cover in the various proceedings instituted as a result of
their complaint: a formal petition for adjudication of wardship, a court
hearing, investigatory conferences held by the DCFS, adjudication of wardship
by the court, and a dispositional hearing by the court, seemingly arguing that
because a court determined that C.A. should remain in foster care, that
demonstrates that their complaints of neglect were justified.  But, assuming that Weire, Karen and Deputy
Sheriff James Brokaw knew the allegations of child neglect were false, then
these proceedings actually weaken their case because that means they succeeded
in the earlier stages of their conspiracy –they created upheaval in C.A’s
family by having him removed from his home and by subjected his family to
governmental interference.  Moreover, as
we have held in the criminal context, ‘[i]f police officers have been
instrumental in the plaintiff’s continued confinement or prosecution, they
cannot escape liability by pointing to the decisions of prosecutors or grand
jurors or magistrates to confine or prosecute him.’ Jones v. City of Chicago,
856 F.2d 985, 994 (7th Cir.1988
).”  Brokaw
v. Mercer County, 235 F.3d 1000 (7th
Cir 2001







Wiccan and other Neopagan groups have
been recognized by governments in the US and Canada and given tax-exempt
status.  Wiccan priests and priestesses
have been given access to penitentiaries in both countries, and the privilege
of performing handfastings/marriages.  On
March 15, 2001,
the list of religious preferences in the United States Air Force Personnel Data
System (MilMod) was augmented to include: Dianic Wicca, Druidism, Gardnerian
Wicca, Pagan, Seax Wicca, Shamanism, and Wicca.


Judge J. Butzner of the Fourth Circuit
Federal Appeals Court confirmed the Dettmer
v Landon decision (799F 2nd 929) in 1986
.  He said: “We agree with the District
Court that the doctrine taught by the Church of Wicca
is a religion
.” Butzner J. 1986 Fourth Circuit.  A case was brought in 1983 in the U.S.
District Court in MichiganThe court found that 3 employees
of a prison had restricted an inmate in the performance of his Wiccan rituals.  This “deprived
him of his First Amendment right to freely exercise his religion and his
Fourteenth Amendment right to equal protection of the laws.
”  Dettmer
vs. Landon
: concerns the rights of a Wiccan inmate in a
penitentiary.  Lamb’s chapel v. Center
Moriches Union
Free School
: concerns the rental of school
facilities after hours by a religious group.
It is abundantly clear that none of the State Defendants can claim that
one’s First Amendment right was not clearly established.





“As the district court correctly found,
insofar as the Hospital was acting in the latter capacity – as part of the reporting and enforcement
machinery for CWA
, a government agency charged with detection and
prevention of child abuse and neglect – the
Hospital was a state actor
.” “[C]onduct that is formally ‘private’ may
become so entwined with governmental policies or so impregnated with a
governmental character as to become subject to the constitutional limitations
placed upon state action . . . In certain instances the actions of private
entities may be considered to be infused with ‘state action’ if those private
parties are performing a function public or governmental in nature and which
would have to be performed by the Government but for the activities of the
private parties.  Perez v. Sugarman, 499 F2d 761, 764-65 (2d Cir. 1974)(quoting Evans
v. Newton, 382 U.S. 296, 299
)” Mora P. v. Rosemary McIntyre, (Case No.: 98-9595) 2nd
Cir (1999





No they cannot.  State-conferred immunity cannot shield a
state actor form liability under § 1983.
See Martinez v. California, 444 U.S. 277, 284 n. 8 (1980)
(“Conduct by persons acting under color of state law which is wrongful under 42
U.S.C. § 1983 … cannot be immunized by state law.”) [cite omitted].  Indeed, a regime that allowed a state
immunity defense to trump the imposition of liability under § 1983 would emasculate
the federal statute.


Section 1983 imposes liability on anyone who, under color of state
law, deprives a person of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the
Constitution and laws.  K & A Radiologic Tech. Servs., Inc.
v. Commissioner of the Dep’t of Health, 189 F.3d 273, 280 (2nd Cir
) (quoting Blessing v. Freestone, 520 U.S. 329, 340 !997)
.  “[T]he core purpose of § 1983 is ‘to provide
compensatory relief to those deprived of their federal rights by state
actors’.” Hardy v. New York City Health & Hosps. Corp., 164
F.3d 789, 795 (2nd Cir. 1999
) (quoting Felder v. Casey, 487 U.S. 131, 141
.  “The traditional
definition of acting under color of state law requires that the defendant in a
§ 1983 action have exercised power possessed by virtue of state law and made
possible only because the wrongdoer is clothed with the authority of state
law.” Id.
(quoting, inter alia, West v.
Atkins, 487 U.S.
42, 49 (1988)
) (other citations and internal quotation marks omitted)









































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our website at:


Written by dawneworswick

July 16, 2011 at 8:36 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

FBI Investigating This CPS Office! (via CPS Corruption Has To Be Stopped)

with 2 comments

A dshs, child protective service worker came to my parent’s house and took my brother's baby.  Procurement of an order to seize a child through distortion, misrepresentation, and/or omission in court and is a violation of the fourth amendment. ( Malik v. Arapahoe Cty. Dept. of Social Services.  (10th Cir. 1991)   That is exactly what the cps worker did.  She either failed to fully investigate intentionally or recklessly, withheld potentially excu … Read More

via CPS Corruption Has To Be Stopped

Written by dawneworswick

July 16, 2011 at 8:20 pm


with one comment

Here is another example the grand jury getting involved and no action taken! We must fight back or we will lose our rights forever to children!

San Diego County Grand Jury Letter Regarding CPS Abuses   February 14th, 2009 The San Diego County Grand Jury conducted years of investigations into misconduct of San Diego County DSS and CPS and their social workers. Despite overwhelming evidence of a routine pattern of misconduct and government abuse of power, the problems have not stopped even years later. This letter from the San Diego County Grand Jury in 1992 … Read More

via Stop Corrupt DSS

New CPS Policy on Investigations in Texas

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New CPS Policy on Investigations

Posted:  October 7, 2008

This past summer, the 5th Circuit handed down a ruling in Gates v. TDPRS, et al. that will affect the investigation of CPS cases.  In response, the Department has issued an advisory memorandum to its employees to help them comply with the ruling.  A copy of that memo is available below.

If you have questions about this memo or the new CPS policies, please contact Shannon Edmonds at TDCAA.



TO:                 All CPS Personnel                       

FROM:           Carey Cockerell, Commissioner and Joyce James, Assistant Commissioner, CPS through Gerry Williams, General Counsel




DATE:            August 22, 2008


On July 28, 2008, a federal appeals court with authority over Texas handed down a decision in a case that will be referred to as “the Gates case.”[1]  The decision is binding on Texas and because it involves federal constitutional rights, supersedes anything to the contrary in Texas law, or DFPS policy or practice.


The Gates case is significant for two key reasons.  First, it sets out a new standard that will require DFPS to obtain a court order prior to removal in a much larger proportion of our cases and affects whether we can transport or enter a home.  Second, it is significant because it clarifies that if the standard is not followed, staff could be sued as individuals and lose qualified immunity, i.e., be responsible for monetary damages.  Staff will still be represented by the Attorney General.  However, it is our intention to revise our policies and practices so that you will stay protected and avoid needing representation in the first place, and you will not lose qualified immunity.

This advisory is the preliminary step in making the changes required by the decision, and is effective immediately.  This advisory should guide your day-to-day practices.  In the meantime, State Office, along with regional leadership, will work as quickly as
possible to revise training and policies and work with the many stakeholders who are also affected by the decision.  Because this advisory supersedes some of our policies and practices, you must read it in its entirety; it addresses key areas related to removal of children from their homes, transporting children from their school, and workers entering and remaining in
a family’s home.

We understand that the changes discussed in this advisory are substantial, but remember that all the tools available to us are the same; we will just be using them in a different manner. This agency, and you, the people who do the work necessary to protect Texas children, are no strangers to challenges and difficult decisions.  Although the adjustments will be difficult, we believe that as an agency we are capable of adapting our practices to continue
to protect children from abuse and neglect.



When CPS investigates a family, there are many options available:  establishing that the children are safe, removing the alleged perpetrator, making voluntary placements, removing the children, and so on.  This remains unchanged.  If CPS determines that removal of the children is appropriate, we continue to have three options:  1) emergency removal prior to obtaining a court order (exigent circumstances), 2) removal pursuant to a court order, or 3) consent to the removal (voluntary placements).  What must change is our practice for these cases because the Gates case sets out a significantly higher threshold for emergency removals prior to obtaining a court order.

Current Practice:  In the majority of cases, DFPS removes based on immediate danger to the physical health or safety of the child or prior sexual abuse of the child, and then goes to court the next business day to file for an
ex parte order for the removal of the child.


:  based on the totality of the circumstances, there is reasonable cause to believe that the child is in imminent danger of physical or sexual abuse if he remains in his home

Imminent Danger:  life or limb is in immediate jeopardy or that sexual abuse is about to occur.

We obtain consent or file for a court order prior to removal of the child unless life or limb is in
immediate jeopardy or sexual abuse is about to occur.


Circumstances, Court Orders or Consent)

1.         Emergency Removal Prior to Obtaining a Court Order (Exigent

The Gates ruling confirms that in order to do a removal without a court order, DFPS must either have consent or “exigent circumstances,” which is consistent with current policy and practice.  However, the threshold that the opinion set for “exigent circumstances” is higher than the one currently utilized in CPS investigations.

As the court described it, we can only perform such removals if we have “exigent circumstances” defined asfollows:  “based on the totality of the circumstances, there is reasonable cause to believe that the child is in imminent danger of physical or sexual abuse if he remains in his home.” (Emphasis added).  According to this definition and the other portions of the case, we can do emergency removals without a court order only if the danger is truly imminent or immediate and only if it is tied
to physical or sexual abuse.  To believe that a child is in imminent danger, we must have reason to believe that life or
limb is in immediate jeopardy or that sexual abuse is about to occur.

NOTE:  For a discussion of neglect, see “The nature of the abuse” below.

Questions to ask yourself before removing a child
WITHOUT a court order:

  • Is the child in danger of being harmed while you are getting a court order?
  • How immediate is the danger to the child?
  •  What does the severity, duration and frequency of the abuse appear to be?
  • How strong is the evidence supporting the allegations of abuse?
  • How likely is the parent to flee with the child?
  • Is there another way to ensure the safety of the child short of a removal?
  • How traumatic will the removal be to the child?

The court in the Gates case listed several factors that may be considered in deciding whether the child is in imminent danger.  These factors must be weighed for each child you are considering removing, i.e., it is not enough that there are
allegations related to one child in the home.  If you do not have a court order and you are removing an additional child or children there must be information to support the other removals, or you must seek an order from the court to remove the additional child or children prior to actually removing them.  The factors considered, and the weight you give them, may vary for each child depending on the circumstances of each child’s case.  The factors to consider include:

  • Whether there is time to obtain a court order

This does not mean that if the courthouse is closed you automatically do an emergency removal without an order, or that if the courthouse is open you cannot do an emergency removal without an order.  It means that, weighing everything you know at the moment you are considering the removal, would the time it takes to obtain a court order place the child in imminent danger
of physical or sexual abuse?  If the answer to the question is yes, then an emergency removal without an order would
be appropriate.  If the answer to the question is no, then an emergency removal without a court order would not be
appropriate unless other factors and circumstances support it.

You should consider how much time would elapse if you waited to obtain an order.  So, for example, in a close case there may be
more exigency on a Friday evening (where at least two days will elapse before you can seek an ex parte order) than there would be on a weekday at 3 a.m. (where you can obtain an order in a matter of hours). However, you must take the facts
as you find them; it would never be appropriate to delay action to make the situation seem more exigent.

  • The nature of the abuse (its severity, duration, and frequency)

The key question for this factor is the immediacy of the danger.  A neglect case will rarely support an emergency removal without a court order. On the other hand, neglectful behavior may result in imminent danger and would support an emergency removal, e.g., an infant at home alone, a case of medical neglect that has become urgent, or a toddler found wandering in the
street.  In a physical or sexual abuse case, an emergency removal will be appropriate only where the information that
you have supports the conclusion that the risk of further abuse is immediate.  Information that may tend to support an
emergency removal includes evidence of one or more of the following:

  • the severity of the abuse;
  • how recently the abuse occurred;
  • whether the abuse has been committed against multiple children;
  • whether there is a pattern of abuse or that this
    is an isolated incident; or
  • whether there is a condition that requires
    immediate medical attention.


  • The fact that there is CPS history on the family
    is not enough to constitute an emergency.  You must have information that suggests that
    the child in question is in danger of harm now.
  • Although you should have evidence to support the
    removal of each child, remember that evidence of abuse to multiple children
    demonstrates a pattern of abuse; the more widespread the abuse seems to be, the
    more support there is for the idea that all of the children are in danger.  In the Gates
    case, because there was evidence about possible abuse to five of the
    thirteen children, that was corroborated by multiple children, the court held
    that the removal of ALL the children was not improper.
  • Increased severity means increased danger.  In the case of a child death caused by abuse,
    the danger to other children immediately following the abuse is extreme and would
    support the removal of other children.  Similarly,
    serious physical injuries caused by abuse are more likely to support the
    removal of other children in the home unless, for example, weeks or months have
    elapsed prior to the “emergency” removal.
  • The strength of the evidence supporting the allegations of abuse

The key question for this factor is whether the allegations have been corroborated.  In all likelihood, some of the information you
gather on a report will tend to support the allegations and some will tend to contradict it.  As with other work in
investigations, you must weigh the strength of the evidence you gather to determine whether the allegations seem reliable.  If the allegations in the report are supported by your visual observation of the child(ren) and the premises, and/or by interviews with collaterals or other children in the home, this tends to support an emergency removal (assuming there is also imminent danger to the child).  On the other hand, if your observations and interviews do not line up with the allegations in the report then this would weigh against an emergency removal, although a removal without a court order may still be appropriate if the information provided in the interviews is clearly implausible (e.g. child got compound fracture in leg after falling off sofa on to a carpeted
floor) or you have other pieces of corroborating evidence that support the allegations.

  • The risk that the parent will flee with the child

It is not enough to have a suspicion the parent might flee with the child.  There should be some objective indication that
the parent may do so, e.g., a threat to that effect, prior CPS history where the parent actually did flee, a parent who is only visiting Texas versus a parent who lives in Texas,

  • The possibility of less extreme solutions to the problem

This factor is consistent with our current practice of making reasonable efforts to prevent removal. For example, we should consider a voluntary placement or a safety plan that will enable the child to remain in the home while still protecting him or
her.  Ensure such efforts are made and documented in your case narratives.

  • Any harm to the child that might result from the removal

This inquiry should be guided by social work best practices.  Some characteristics that make a child vulnerable to abuse (age, ability to verbalize, special needs, etc.) may also make a removal more traumatic.

            2.         Removal pursuant to a court order

Because it is very likely that DFPS practice will change and we will be conducting more removals pursuant to a
court order, keep in mind that the following guidelines apply:

  • A court order must be proper.  If you do not have exigent circumstances or consent and are going to rely on an order
    for an emergency removal, it must be written, and not verbal.  Although judges may have varying practices, and some issue verbal orders when we have exigent circumstances, it is important to your protection that you not
    rely on any type of verbal order for a removal where we do not have
    exigent circumstances or consent.
  • Emergency hearings will follow the same procedures they do now.  If it is 2 a.m. and you want to remove
    but do not think you have exigent circumstances, then you can do a voluntary placement or remove the alleged perpetrator but you do not remove.  This decision does not mean that hearings are going to start being held at all hours of the night.  It means that if we do not have the type of exceptional circumstances needed for an emergency removal, then we wait
    until court opens the following workday.
  • A court order is not the same thing as exigent circumstances.  Although the threshold for an emergency removal prior to a court order has been raised significantly for CPS practice, that does not mean that the courts’ standards have changed.  The standard for an emergency removal order still permits a judge to order aremoval not only for children who are in immediate danger but also children who have been victims of neglect or sexual abuse and continuation
    in the home is contrary to the child’s welfare.  Moreover, the judge is specifically
    authorized to consider prior sexual abuse or other serious abuse or
    neglect in making the decision.
  • Practices with respect to court orders will change.  We understand that it may not be possible to obtain emergency removal orders for all of the removals we currently perform.  We understand that we may have to make increasing use of non-emergency removal orders and will be working with all our stakeholders to effectuate any necessary changes.

            3.         Consent to Removal Parents can always agree to having their children removed from their care by authorizing  a   voluntary placement of the children.


NOTE:             As you know from our experience in CPS, it is impossible to take into account all of the many
factual variations a given investigation will present.  These examples, and the examples given
elsewhere in this advisory, are meant to serve as illustrations of possible
outcomes but should not be read as absolutes or relied on too literally.  In other words, if there are exigent
circumstances in one of the examples because of a recently broken arm, you
should not rely on that literally and remove any time you find a broken arm.

  • We receive a report about physical abuse of a child from a neighbor who states he heard screaming coming from the potential victim’s house.  You go to the home within a few hours of the report, receive consent to interview everyone in the
    home, and determine there is only one child in the home, who appears to be fairly badly beaten (bruises, swollen eye, a welt on the arm). The father tells you the child tripped on a toy but this seems inconsistent with the extent of
    the injuries that are visible.  Can you remove?
    • Yes. The child is in imminent danger of physical abuse.  The report indicates that the abuse is very recent and your observations back this up.  There is nothing to indicate that the abusive episode has ended, that it is an isolated instance, or that the child will be safe in the time it would take you to file for an emergency removal order prior
      to carrying out the removal.  The best way to assure the child’s safety in this instance is to remove him and file for
      a court order following the removal.
    • We receive an intake about physical abuse to a child in a home with four other children.  You are sent to the home and the parents consent to the interview of all five children.  The child who is the subject of the report has
      visible bruises, which is consistent with the intake.  The other four children confirm that their father routinely punishes and beats the child in the report but they state they have not been harmed.  Who do you remove,
      if anyone?
      • Only the child for whom you have evidence of abuse and imminent danger of further abuse.  For the other four children you will need to either seek an emergency or non-emergency order to remove prior to removing.

    A mother who has been RTB’ed for abuse for failure to protect two of her children who have died is nine months pregnant.  In the past, after the mother gave birth, we would have immediately removed the baby without a court order.  Can we still do that?

    • No. You can still do a removal, but you should get a court order prior to the removal.  Assuming mother gives birth in the hospital, there will be time to obtain a court order in all but the most unusual of circumstances.  Unusual circumstances may include removing a child on a Friday evening if you know the baby will be released from the
      hospital over the weekend and the mother is a flight risk or there is other immediate danger to the child (e.g. the other two deaths involved newborn infants, the parent she failed to protect the babies from is still in the home, the mother is incapacitated from drugs or mental disturbance and is clearly unable to care for the baby, etc.).
    • We receive a report of SXAB of a sixteen-year-old girl.  The outcry of abuse in the intake is confirmed by the sixteen-year-old in an interview that takes place in the home.  She says that Daddy has been inappropriately touching her for a couple of years and as far as she knows she is the only one he touches.  There is also a fifteen-year-old girl in the
      home, as well as two younger siblings.  Do you have enough to remove the other children?
      • You do not have any information that the younger siblings are in imminent danger of sexual abuse so they should fairly clearly not be removed without a court order.  The fifteen-year-old girl is a MUCH closer call but on the facts presented there appears to be no suggestion that the father is perpetrating the abuse against
        anyone other than the sixteen-year-old.  Although it is also true the father is eventually likely to perpetrate the abuse against the fifteen-year-old, you should ordinarily have enough time to seek a court order
        for removal before she is in imminent danger of such abuse.
    • SWI receives a report of RAPR for a sixteen-year-old male whose parents will not come to pick him up from a private
      psychiatric hospital.  Can we pick him up without a court order?

      • The best practice would be to obtain a court
        order prior to the removal, but there may be rare situations that constitute
        exigent circumstances.

III.    Transporting a Child from School

A.      Summary

Just as was the case with removals, the options available to CPS in the context of transporting a child from school are the same as they have always been but our practices must be modified.  Transporting a child should already be reserved for the most severe cases we see.  If you and your supervisor determine transport is appropriate, the same options are available now:  1) obtain consent 2) obtain a court order or 3) rely on what used to be referred to as “exigent circumstances” but has been
explained by the Gates court as “a reasonable belief that the child has been abused and probably will suffer further abuse upon his return home at the end of the school day.”

Current Practice:  We attempt to avoid multiple interviews whenever a CAC interview is planned.  For example, if a child makes a clear outcry of abuse to a teacher it is not necessary for CPS to determine specific details of the abuse before taking the child to a CAC without a court order.  In addition, we transport over parental objection only if “exigent circumstances” are present or we obtain a court order.

New Practice:  We still attempt to avoid multiple interviews when a CAC interview is planned, but it is now necessary for CPS to
independently corroborate the allegations prior to transport without a court order in aid of investigation.  In addition, we transport pursuant to parental consent, a court order, or a “reasonable belief that the child has been abused and probably will suffer further abuse upon his return home at the end of the school day.”


1.         Reasonable Belief The court set out this new standard based on the fact that the child
was in a public school instead of at home, and explained that is a lower standard than “exigent circumstances.”  The
key points for this standard are as follows:

You must answer “YES” to one of the questions below
BEFORE you transport a child from school

  1. 1.      Do you have a court order?
  2. 2.      Do you have consent?
  3. 3.      Do you have a “reasonable belief” that
    has been corroborated that the child has been abused and will suffer
    further abuse when they get home from school?


  • The child need not be in imminent danger of abuse but it must appear probable that abuse will happen again soon, i.e., that evening.  However, keep in mind that because this is a lower standard than exigent circumstances, so anything that constitutes exigent circumstances is also sufficient to support the transport.
  • The allegations in the report must be independently corroborated before a child is transported.  A report of abuse in and of
    itself will rarely be sufficiently reliable to base your decision to transport on, because there may be another explanation for an injury, the report could have been inaccurate, etc. Prior to transport by any DFPS employee, the employee
    must have either obtained first-hand information or received information that makes it reasonable to believe the child has been abused and probably will be abused again upon his return home.  Examples of corroborating information include:
    • A preliminary interview of the child’s teachers;
    • A preliminary interview of the child’s peers;
    • A visual inspection of any injuries that can be
      seen without removal of the
      child’s clothing (provided you obtain other corroborating information and
      rule out another explanation for the injury); or
    • If necessary, a preliminary interview of the child—e.g. if the allegation is physical
      abuse and the child has bruises, you ask her where the bruises came from prior to transport.

NOTE:  Any one of these actions, standing alone, may not be sufficient to corroborate the report.  In the Gates case, the caseworkers observed one child who had a baggie full of food wrappers pinned to his shirt and two small marks on his hand and face, and a second child who had a bruise on her face, all of which was consistent with the intake.  The court held that this
information was still insufficient to transport because there was only information supporting emotional abuse to the first child; there was nothing to suggest that the child would be physically abused upon his return home; and the caseworkers did not ask the second child where her bruise came from.

  • A fear that a child will recant once he goes home is not enough to meet the requirements of “reasonable belief.”  However, if the situation warrants it, you should seek a court order in aid of investigation to transport and interview
    the child that day.

2.         Consent

In this context, as others, “consent” means an affirmative expression that the parent or other person with legal responsibility over the child agrees that we may transport the child.  It is not sufficient merely to follow the procedures outlined for notifying a parent that the child is being transported.  See Handbook section 2247.  The parent must affirmatively express agreement with the decision to transport.  By the same token, even if a child is transported pursuant to other authority, e.g. reasonable belief as described above, we must still notify the parents of the transport so that they know the child’s whereabouts.

3.         Court Order

In cases where you don’t think you have a “reasonable belief” as defined above, but you feel it is important to transport the child that day, you may obtain a court order in aid of investigation to transport the child, where the standard is “good
cause shown” instead of the higher “reasonable belief” standard.


  • A school employee makes a report that a girl stated, “Daddy touched me down there.”  You are dispatched to the school on a P1 and speak to the reporter who confirms that the child made the statement but she made it last week.  You ask to speak to the child alone to clarify what “down there” means, and the child states that she did not make such a statement.
    • Unless you obtain additional evidence, you should not transport the child for an interview without parental consent or a court order in aid of investigation because you do not have any evidence that the child has actually been abused or that she may suffer further abuse later that day.
  • A school employee makes a report that a girl stated, “Daddy touched me in my private parts last night.”  You are dispatched to the school on a P1 and speak to the reporter who confirms that the child made the statement earlier that morning.
    • Unless there is additional evidence to the contrary, you may transport the child.  The outcry was corroborated by the
      teacher.  You cannot ascertain more information without conducting a full interview, which would not be
      appropriate in this instance because it should be conducted at the CAC.


A.      Summary

As with removals, in order to gain entry into a home for the purpose of a CPS investigation, we must have one of the following:  1) exigent circumstances, 2) consent, or 3) a court order, but the Gates ruling provided additional explanation concerning exigent
circumstances and consent that will affect our practices.

You must answer “YES” to one of the questions below
BEFORE you enter a home for the purposes of investigation

  1. 1.      Do you have a court order?
  2. 2.      Do you have consent?
  3. 3.      Based on the totality of the
    circumstances, is there is reasonable cause to believe that the child is in imminent danger of physical or sexual abuse if he remains in his home?


NOTE:  even if we do have exigent circumstances to enter a home, it may be more appropriate for safety reasons to call law
enforcement to gain entry.

Current Practice:  CPS enters a family’s home only if we have exigent circumstances, consent, or a court order.  CPS does not always ensure consent is specific to our investigators.  A court order in aid of investigation is rarely utilized.

New Practice:  As with removals, exigent circumstances are present only where there is immediate danger to a child in the home, i.e. life or limb is in immediate jeopardy.  Consent must be clear, unequivocal, voluntary and given specifically to CPS, as opposed to law enforcement.  We will likely increase the use of court orders in aid of investigation.


1.         Exigent Circumstances

In this context, exigent circumstances are present only where CPS has evidence that there is immediate
danger to a child or children in the home and the purpose of CPS’ entry in the home is to prevent immediate danger.

  • Examples of exigent circumstances include: entry into
    a home to render emergency assistance to an injured occupant or to protect
    an occupant from imminent injury; a child needing emergency medical care
    or a small child left unattended for an extended time; life or limb being
    in immediate jeopardy and the intrusion being reasonably necessary to
    alleviate the threat;
  • Entering the home solely for the purpose of
    interviews does not constitute exigent circumstances; and
  • “Immediate danger” means immediate in the most
    literal sense of the word.  If the alleged perpetrator is not home, we should have information that the
    alleged perpetrator will be home soon and is likely to harm the child at
    that time.

2.         Consent

The Gates case serves as an important reminder about the need for consent to enter a home for the purposes of conducting a CPS investigation.  Key points are:

  • Consent must be affirmative.  It is not enough that a person does not say no.  Consent for CPS to enter a home must be
    voluntarily given and unequivocal (clear).  You should identify yourself as a CPS investigator and explicitly request and receive permission to enter the home.  The best practice is to ensure that the person states you may enter (rather than simply getting a nod or other non-verbal gesture).  In any case you must document the basis
    for consent in your narrative.
  • Consent should be from someone with authority to give it.  A parent has the authority to consent to
    or deny entry to the home.  It is also reasonable to assume that if the parents have left one or more children in the care of an adult caretaker, that caretaker has the authority to consent to allow the caseworker to enter the home and interview the
    child in private, although a caretaker probably does not have the authority to permit a search of the entire house.  If an adult is not home, the caseworker should rely on the consent of a child in the home only if the child
    appears old enough to effectively give consent.  Teenagers will likely be old enough;
    children 12 or younger probably will not.
  • Consent can be withdrawn at any time.  Anyone with authority to give consent can also withdraw it at any time.  The decision of a parent or other individual living in the home is the final word.  So, if entry is gained after a housekeeper who does not live in the home gives consent, a parent or other individual living in the home could at any point instruct CPS to leave and we would be obligated to do so.
  • Consent must be given to CPS.  We routinely conduct joint investigations with law enforcement, but it is important to
    remember that our activities are separate.  If law enforcement gains entry to a home, we must still request permission for CPS to enter.  Moreover, if law enforcement determines consent is not necessary to their investigation, this determination does not apply to us.  We must independently determine whether there are exigent circumstance or whether
    we have been given consent to enter.

3.         Court Order

This is an aspect of our practice that is likely to be increasingly utilized. Keep in mind that the standard for a court to issue an order in aid of investigation to interview the child is “good cause shown,” so this standard involves a lower threshold than that
necessary for “exigent circumstances.”


  • You are called to a home on a P1 report of physical abuse.  You arrive at the home and the
    parents are not home.  An adult, who appears to be the housekeeper, answers the door.  You ask for permission to come in and speak to the children in the home.  Shesays, “sure, come on in.”  You begininterviewing the children who all tell you that they are afraid of their father’s discipline methods.  At that time the father comes home and tells you to get out of his house.  Can you stay?
    • No, because the father revoked the housekeeper’s consent and you do not have exigent circumstances.
  • We sometimes accompany law enforcement on drug busts where they suspect children are in the home.  Is this enough to constitute exigent circumstances?
    • Not without additional information.  Law enforcement’s suspicion that children are in a home where parents will be arrested, in and of itself, is not sufficient to constitute exigent circumstances, even if law enforcement thinks it does.  If you get to the home and determine that there are children in the home who will have no one to care for them because the parents have been arrested, then in most cases the children can be said to be in “immediate danger”
      and you should take them into possession.


We know you will have many questions about this advisory and encourage you to work with your regional chain-of-command as well as your regional attorney as our revised policy and practices take shape.  We will be working as quickly as possible on those, along with plans for regional and state office staff to meet with judges, district and county attorneys, child advocacy
centers, and other key stakeholders.

As you can imagine, the changes required by the Gates decision will take some time to put into place.  In the meantime
you should rely on this Advisory and know that if followed, you will be protected.  The decision will require us
to make some extremely difficult decisions, but we know you are up to the challenge because these are the kinds of decisions you already make every day.  It will not be easy but we can and will adapt so that we may continue to carry out our mission of protecting the most vulnerable Texans.

[1] The decision is available for everyone to read at

Written by dawneworswick

July 16, 2011 at 4:49 am

Posted in Uncategorized

California Family Courts Helping Pedophiles, Batterers Get Child Custody

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By Peter Jamison Wednesday, Mar 2 2011

Karen Anderson suspected that something strange was going on between her ex-husband, Rex Anderson, and their 15-year-old daughter. Prior to the couple’s separation in 1998, the girl would sometimes put on high heels and makeup, “visiting” her dad while he worked late at night in the family’s basement. It was the same retreat in which he stored the dildos and artificial vaginas he used to stimulate himself sexually.

After the divorce, Rex was given primary custody of his daughter, as well as the couple’s 8-year-old son. Karen says this was because he had a full-time job as a facilities engineer at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, while she was unemployed. While staying with her on weekends, her daughter would sometimes say she hated herself and wanted to die.

In 1999, Anderson, a resident of San Jose, decided to take her concerns to Santa Clara County Family Court. Like similar courts across the state, it is charged with adjudicating high-conflict divorces — managing the division of property, child support payments, and the often bitter process of establishing a plan for shared child-rearing. She urged the court to investigate whether her daughter was at risk of sexual molestation, and whether Rex’s custody rights should be restricted as a result.

Family Court Judge James Stewart temporarily barred the children from seeing their father while the court looked into the abuse claims. But instead of seeking evidence as to whether molestation was taking place, he hired a Menlo Park–based psychologist, Leslie Packer, to evaluate both parents. Among Packer’s tasks was to assess, in light of their psychological profiles, whether the accusations were likely to be true. After a series of interviews and personality tests, such as the Rorschach inkblot test, she delivered her opinion: Karen’s fears for her daughter were unfounded.

“Karen’s suspiciousness goes to the extent of paranoid thinking, particularly in regard to her husband’s actions,” Packer wrote in an evaluation delivered to the court. “There is a basis in her concerns with her husband’s unusual sexual practices, but it appears that most of her speculations about her husband’s possible sexualized attitudes toward their daughter are not based upon documented or reality-based evidence.” Rex regained primary custody of his children.

Today, Rex Anderson is serving a 23-year sentence at Pleasant Valley State Prison in Coalinga. In 2003, he pleaded no contest to 25 counts of sex crimes against his daughter, including child molestation, sexual penetration of a child with a foreign object, and use of a minor to create pornography. When she turned 18, his daughter left his care and reported years of abuse to police in El Dorado County, where they were living. (SF Weekly is withholding her name as a victim of child sexual abuse.)

Seldom are a parent’s allegations against an estranged former spouse rejected out of hand, only to be vindicated so completely. Yet observers say the Anderson case represents just one unfortunate outcome of systemic problems in the family courts’ methods for investigating accusations of abuse.

Looking out for the children who find themselves in the middle of bitter divorces is the most important function of the state’s family courts, and arguably one of the most significant duties of the judiciary as a whole. Yet evidence has mounted in recent years that it is a responsibility in which family court officials are sometimes failing dramatically.

Interviews with dozens of parents, activists, lawyers, judges, children, and former family court employees, as well as a review of hundreds of pages of family and criminal court documents, indicate that the system’s methods for assessing whether child sexual abuse or spousal battery has taken place — findings that are critical to deciding whether a parent should retain custody of or visitation rights with a child — fall short of the standards accepted by domestic-violence experts and the criminal-justice community.

The results can be tragic. In some cases, such as Anderson’s, abuse allegations have been confirmed decisively, in the form of criminal convictions, after a poor custody decision was made. In others, court officials have ignored existing domestic-violence convictions, sending children to live with admitted batterers. In at least one case, an infant boy lost his life because of a judge’s refusal to take seriously warnings about an unstable parent.

Family court officials face difficult decisions in cases where the truth is often clouded by high emotions. Every day, in courtrooms throughout the state, those decisions doubtless lead to many beneficial outcomes for the children whose futures are at stake. In the morass of ill will and “he-said, she-said” exchanges that characterize bitter divorces, the facts can be hard to tease out.

For this reason, SF Weekly has focused exclusively on cases, both in the San Francisco Bay Area and the rest of California, where allegations of domestic violence or child molestation were backed up by criminal convictions — and, in one case, a murder-suicide. In all of them, the courts seem to have failed to follow basic procedures, including some dictated by state law, for weighing evidence of a parent’s abusiveness before making crucial custody decisions.

Absent an exhaustive review of the state’s family courts, it is impossible to say how common such cases are. The reasoning that guides custody decisions can also be difficult to decipher. Court officials — including a number of those approached for this article — frequently decline to explain their decisions or recommendations, citing client confidentiality or judicial ethics.


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Written by dawneworswick

July 16, 2011 at 1:21 am

Posted in Uncategorized

Subject: Senate Judiciary Committee (SD-226) Members & Press Reports on Hearings

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Dear Friends and Fellow Americans,

Subject: Senate Judiciary Committee (SD-226) Members & Press Reports on Hearings

Despite the overwhelming evidence and “Corruption”.  Judge Sharon Gleason awarded custody to my ex Chandra.  This revolves with my former sister-in-law Attorney Marissa K Flannery. Please  contact your local Senators and …the Senators (Ref. Judicial committee DS-226) listed below.  Please, you have my permission share my information with them.  They have the power and vote to deny Judge Sharon Gleason nomination.  Continuously, This Judge has violated myself and others of their Parental Rights, Constitutional Right and Civil Rights.  These actions cannot and should not go unheard for the future of our Country and our innocent Children.

In loving memory of our Senators Nancy Scgaefer, Ted Steven and our innocent Children.  May they Rest In Peace.

Leahy’s Press Report on VAWA Hearing:​press_releases/release/?id=c67​bbd1a-b0f1-4f29-989b-da5cf914f​4b5

Grassley’s Press Report on VAWA Hearing:  (You’ll like his take)​s/Article.cfm?customel_dataPag​eID_1502=35952

Committee Website:​out/members.cfm

Committee Members:

Patrick J. Leahy, Chairman, D-Vermont
Washington D.C. Office
437 Russell Senate Bldg
United States Senate
Washington, DC 20510
(202) 224-4242

Chuck Grassley, Ranking Member, R-Iowa
135 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, DC 20510
(202) 224 – 3744
Fax: (202) 224-6020

Herb Kohl, D-Wisconsin
Washington Office
330 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, DC 20510
(202) 224-5653
Fax: (202) 224-9787

Diane Feinstein, D-California
331 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20510
Phone: (202) 224-3841
Fax: (202) 228-3954​blic/

Orrin G. Hatch, R-Utah
104 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20510
Phone: (202) 224-5251
Fax: (202) 228-6331​/

Chuck Schumer, D-New York
322 Hart Senate Office
Washington D.C. 20510
Phone: 202-224-6542
Fax: 202-228-3027

Jon Kyl, R-Arizona
730 Hart Senate Building
Washington, D.C. 20510
Phone: (202) 224-4521
Fax: (202) 224-2207

Dick Durbin, D-Illinois
711 Hart Senate Bldg.
Washington, DC 20510
9 am to 6 pm ET
(202) 224-2152 – phone
(202) 228-0400 – fax​c/

Jeff Sessions, R-Alabama
AmSouth Center, Suite 802
200 Clinton Avenue, NW
Huntsville, Alabama 35801-4932
Phone:  (256) 533-0979
Washington DC Phone:  (202) 224-4124​lic/

Sheldon Whitehouse, D-Rhode Island
Hart Senate Office Building
Room 717
Washington, D.C. 20510
202-224-2921 phone
202-228-6362 fax

Lindsey Graham, R-South Carolina
290 Russell Senate Office Building
Washington, DC 20510
(202) 224-5972​ic/

Amy Klobuchar, D-Minnesota
302 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, DC 20510
Main Line: 202-224-3244
Main Fax: 202-228-2186
Toll Free: 1-888-224-9043

John Cornyn, R-Texas
517 Hart Senate Office Bldg.
Washington, DC 20510
Main: 202-224-2934
Fax: 202-228-2856​c

Al Franken, D-Minnesota
309 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, DC 20510
(202) 224-5641

Michael S. Lee, R-Utah
316 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20510
Phone: 202-224-5444
Fax: 202-228-1168​ic/

Christopher A. Coons, D-Delaware
127A Russell Senate Office Building
Washington,  D.C. , 20510 Get Directions »
Phone: (202) 224-5042
Fax: (202) 228-3075

Tom Coburn, R-Oklahoma
172 Russell Senate Office Bldg.
Washington, DC 20510
Main: 202-224-5754
Fax: 202-224-6008​c/

Richard Blumenthal, D-Connecticut
Washington D.C.
702 Hart Senate Office Bldg.
Washington DC, 20510
tel: (202) 224-2823
fax: (202) 224-9673


Lazaro Ecenarro

Written by dawneworswick

July 16, 2011 at 12:29 am

Posted in Uncategorized

San Diego County Grand Jury Cites Further CPS

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San Diego County Grand Jury Cites Further CPS

Despite more than two decades of repeated
investigations by the San Diego County Grand Jury of misconduct by the County of
San Diego Child Welfare Services (aka San Diego CPS) agency, the abusive agency
and its illegal and harmful actions continue unabated.

Safeguards to fix
errors and abuses have been perverted into meaningless mechanisms to cover up
wrong-doing and insulate the County of San Diego and individual social workers
from criminal prosecution and civil litigation.

The agency is
unrelenting in its refusals to correct its own problems, and continues to run
roughshod over the law, civil rights, and best interests of children. The County
of San Diego and its derelict Board of Supervisors also avoid taking necessary
actions to correct the problems.

Two reports have been released in 2008
and 2009 that indicate how San Diego CPS frequently:

Removes children
from homes without revealing the reasons

Fails to document reasons for
CPS actions in writing

Fails to provide written communications and
instructions to parents

Claims to courts and others to have communicated
in writing to parents, but no such evidence of this alleged written
communication could be found by the Grand Jury. This implies that CPS social
workers lied and/or perjured. This is consistent with past findings in previous
Grand Jury investigations that CPS social workers routinely lie and perjure to
the detriment of children and parents.

Fails to objectively and
competently investigate complaints regarding CPS and its social workers after
children are removed from homes.

Uses the removal of children from homes
on inadequately investigated allegations as an excuse to stop further

CPS Refuses to Communicate Effectively with Parents

CPS social workers avoid using written communications with parents. It
appears part of the purpose for this is to leave parents uncertain of what is
happening and stymied in their responses because they lack critical information
that should have been provided to them.

(from San Diego County Grand Jury 2008 Report: NOTIFICATION AND
, page 2)

complainants were a small group of individuals from all areas of the County and
from different ethnic and economic groups. Their common ground was that they all
had been accused of child neglect or abuse resulting in children having been
temporarily removed from their custody. A common complaint was, at the time the
children were removed, that they did not receive verbal or written notification
specifying the reasons for removal. There was also an indication that the
parents or custodians experienced ongoing difficulties in communicating with the
social workers assigned to their cases and more difficulty in receiving written
notices updating the status of those cases.

Fact: Four of the six
complainants were not told why their children were being removed nor were they
notified in writing.

Finding: Of the cases we examined, the Grand Jury
found no record of written notification at the time of removal.

CPS Refuses to Record Interviews and Use Written

It is unlikely that the
following behavioral patterns apply to all CPS workers. In a system of hundreds
of employees it seems likely there must be a few “good apples”. Yet they appear
to be rare. If a citizen of San Diego believes the stereotype of CPS social
workers as duplicitous abusive liars who will harm children and parents and do
so without reasonable care for facts and without available means of recourse, it
is with good reason.

CPS social workers do not record interviews and
refuse to allow recordings of interviews when people request to make such
recordings. Based upon these Grand Jury reports, statements from parents who
have been abused by CPS, and documents in CPS case files, it appears that this
conduct occurs for the following reasons:

Social workers do not want to
be held accountable for getting facts straight, so they are intent on covering
up original physical evidence except for that evidence that they can control and
manipulate as they see fit.

Social workers want to be able to bias
reports and findings in any way they see fit, the facts be damned. They do this
via biased choice of words, false implications and statements that would leave
an objective reader of a report believing things that are not true, intentional
or seriously negligent false statements, and distortions and fabrications of
statements of others. They omit mention of their own lying and manipulations and
abusive conduct. Once they have “documented” a case with inaccurate, biased, and
defamatory misinformation in their self-serving and biased manner, then there is
no original source material upon which abused families can rely upon to correct
the systematic misinformation promulgated by CPS. This then functions as an
excuse for why they will not reopen a biased and seriously flawed investigation.

Social workers do not want recordings of their verbal statements because
they frequently lie, make inflammatory remarks, exhibit blatant disregard for
the law and safety of children, show evident sexism and bias particularly
against fathers and men, and commit psychological abuses and use unwarranted
threats against parents to manipulate and control them.

Social workers
want to be able to manipulate 3rd parties contacted during the course of
investigations to produce false “evidence” to be used against parents whom they
have already decided with prejudice to target for deprivation of civil rights,
suspension or termination of custody, or other unjustifiable actions.

Social workers and the County of San Diego want to avoid prosecution and
civil litigation for violation of the US Constitution and Federal Civil Rights
legislation. If proper documentation of their actions and words and those of
others were kept, it would significantly assist families abused by CPS in
criminal prosecutions and law suits against individual social workers and the
County of San Diego.

CPS Has No Effective Oversight

There is no effective oversight of San Diego CPS and its social workers.
Instead, there is refusal to perform objective and competent investigations of
their abuses and errors. The agency’s supposed complaint investigation system,
the “CPS Ombudsman” office, simply functions as a rubber stamp and biased
self-defense mechanism covering up abuses and errors by CPS and abusive social

As the Grand Jury stated:

(from San Diego County Grand Jury 2009 Report: ENHANCING OMBUDSMAN’S
, page 2)

When errors are made in CWS operations they are often highly visible and
can have a devastating impact on the children and families involved. In
addition, they have a negative impact on the overall credibility of the
department. Where independent review exists it gives people confidence that no
cover-ups are occurring. When there is no investigation, objectivity can be
called into question. Objective investigations give the public confidence no
cover-up exists.

Based on recent newspaper articles and citizen
complaints, there is a public perception that CWS’s internal investigations are
biased in favor of the agency. Interviews with CWS managers revealed that
internal investigations are limited to a review of the case file and no
additional field investigation occurs. When specifically asked if they sought
out the truth, managers indicated that once a child was no longer in the home,
active investigation of the initial circumstances of a case ceases.

San Diego CPS: 20+ Years of Abusive and Illegal Conduct

The 2008 and 2009 reports are rehashes in many ways. Citizens continue
to file the same types of complaints against this agency year after year because
the County of San Diego refuses to fix the problems.

(from San Diego County Grand Jury 2009 Report: ENHANCING OMBUDSMAN’S
, pages 1-2)

In response to concerns regarding CWS processes in the removal of
children that developed while reviewing previous Grand Jury investigations, the
2008/2009 Grand Jury undertook a study of the history of Grand Jury
investigations as they related to CWS for the past 20 years. It has been noted
that Grand Jury reports during this period discussed similar complaints and made
recommendations to CWS about its initial contacts with families. Parents
complain that these meetings are fraught with difficulties. They think that
initial reports are not always accurate. To many parents, both the initial
determination and the process leading to it are a source of confusion and
misunderstanding. The initial determination is important because it serves as
the foundation for Court proceedings, including placement of the child. In
general, parents are not aware of any means to challenge the initial
determination until a Court hearing.

The Grand Jury undertook this
investigation after Jurors noted that CWS is the current recipient of complaints
of a similar nature to those covered in previous Grand Jury reports. The current
Grand Jury investigation indicates that decisions made by CWS personnel are not
subjected to significant oversight although they are subject to limited internal
review of the case file. Additionally, employees of CWS testified that they
“have the ability to consciously manipulate the Risk Assessment tool(1) for the
purpose of supporting any decision [they] …. make.”

1. Risk Assessment
is a form that is used by CWS workers to assess the level of risk and may
support the removal of the child.

Complicit Involvement of Rady
Children’s Hospital and Chadwick Center

staff of Rady Children’s Hospital and Chadwick Center have been involved in many
abuses against families and children. The staff of these organizations appear to
lack objectivity and allow themselves to be entangled in CPS misconduct for
their own financial gain.

Instead of helping children, they aim to help
CPS. These are two very different goals. The first is to help children recover
from any trauma that may have occurred, the second is often to traumatize
children and brainwash them to assist CPS is generating evidence falsely to be
used against CPS’s chosen targets, even if their targets did nothing illegal.

CPS and law enforcement feed incomplete and biased information to
therapists who are supposed to be helping children. Often truly abusive parents
have engaged in brainwashing tactics on their children, also, hoping to help
build false accusations against the other parent. These behaviors all result in
the focus of the therapy being on building a CPS or criminal case often against
a parent who did not do anything illegal, not discovering what really happened
or did not happen and helping the children deal with it. Accused parents are not
provided the opportunity to talk with these therapists or to find out what is
being discussed, even though it may be substantially inaccurate.

the ability of accusing parents to brainwash their children directly, accusing
parents or other accusers often have their words and statements fed to the
therapists via CPS and law enforcement. The result is that these therapists lack
objectivity and full information about a case. They are taught to regard the
accused parent as a criminal and to speak about him or her in front of the
children as such. They will consequently cause more damage to the children
involved. They push children to make false statements and develop unfounded
fears, causing what may turn into a lifetime of trauma for these children. The
trauma may not be from anything done by the accused parent or caregiver, but
rather from the psychological assault on the children committed by the
therapists at the behest of CPS and law enforcement.

(from San Diego County Grand Jury Report of 1993-1994: Dale Akiki
Case and Prosecutorial Misconduct

The Grand Jury was able
to determine that therapy frequently is not used to its fullest treatment
benefit, but is an adjunct to develop evidence for the prosecution of child
molestation cases. The many issues involving conflict of interest, hidden
agendas and misguided treatment by therapists are addressed in this report as
well as the dispelling of the myth that satanic ritual abuse is prevalent in
child molestation cases in San Diego County.

The Grand Jury’s
investigation of the prosecution procedures started with the role of the
investigators who respond to the first report of molestation, and the relation
to the social worker who participated in the first response. The Jury then went
on to review the operation at Children’s Hospital with regard to the initial
evidentiary interview and physical examination.

The Grand Jury spent a
considerable amount of time investigating the role of therapists in dealing with
children, and a review of the beliefs in ritual abuse and satanic ritual abuse.
Many mental health workers were interviewed and testified before the Grand Jury.
These included Marriage, Family and Child Counselors (MFCC), Licensed Clinical
Social Workers (LCSW), clinical psychologists and psychiatrists.

Therapists are utilized by the court and the District Attorney’s office
to provide healing and treatment for young children who are victims of sexual
molestation. In some cases these therapists have been used to encourage
disclosures by children of events or perceived events relating to sexual
molestation cases. The Grand Jury finds that “The San Diego Model” needs
improvement when compared with the Orange County CAST model.

question of whether the prosecuting deputy district attorney had produced enough
evidence to initiate proceedings against Dale Akiki is one that concerned this
Grand Jury. This was especially true since there was almost no physical
evidence, and in most instances disclosure by the children came only after
intense therapy.

The Grand Jury has learned that the original prosecutor
in the case had concerns about the believability, credibility and reliability of
the children’s testimony. She lacked confidence in proceeding with the case
because she believed that the children’s testimony was neither accurate nor

Rady, Chadwick, CPS, Police, and DA Dishonestly Tow
Government Line

Many of the mental health professionals working
with allegedly abused children in San Diego County are employees of Rady
Children’s Hospital and its affiliate Chadwick Center. These so-called
professionals are not objective parties. They have a vested interest in serving
the goals of CPS and the government before the goals of helping children.
Children do not pay for their services, the government does. They know who their
customers are, and if their customers want them to harm children then they will
gladly do it for a fee.

CPS social workers are often in frequent contact
with these therapists. As the Grand Jury found, when a therapist does not agree
with the assessment of a CPS social worker, the therapist stands to lose
business from this disagreement. Consequently, these therapists align with CPS
because it is in their financial interests to do so. This is yet another
problematic practice that results in wrongful accusations, abusive child custody
changes, wrongful prosecutions, and indeed in some case in the covering up of
actual child abuse by the actual abusive parent because the CPS social worker in
charge of the case refuses to act in an objective and responsible fashion.

When therapists and doctors from Chadwick and Rady are not sure what is
going on in a family, they will allow police and CPS to influence them with
intentional misinformation. As mandatory child abuse reporters, if these
therapists and doctors are informed of something that could be abuse or neglect
and fail to report it, they could be disciplined or prosecuted. Often they are
not sure what is happening because they have incomplete information, so it is
understandable that they may fail to file a report.

But when they realize they may have failed to follow the mandatory child abuse reporting laws and there are signs of real abuse and neglect that had been pointed out to them, they will turn on the party that may push for disciplinary action against them. It is a game of kill the messenger intended to cover-up to protect themselves and their government handlers. When enough of these dishonest doctors and therapists stick together with their distortions, fabrications, and attacks on a parent who has legitimate concerns backed by real evidence of child abuse or neglect, they can turn that parent into an accused target for the government to persecute. They are happy to do it to protect themselves and line their pockets with government money. They will write letters and reports which intentionally omit evidence which shows legitimate concerns of the target parent, and instead portray the target parent as crazy and abusive.

San Diego parents would
be well-advised to never trust anybody at Rady Children’s Hospital or Chadwick
Center or any other doctor or therapist who is involved in child abuse or
neglect reporting. Even if a parent thinks they have good evidence of abuse or
neglect and have shared it with these so-called professionals, it can and will
be ignored and evidence fabricated or spun to portray them as the problem if the
government handlers such as CPS social workers wish the doctors or therapists to
do this.

Rady, Chadwick, CPS, police, the District Attorney, and others
get together on Wednesdays at Rady Children’s Hospital for “seminars” on child
abuse topics. Too often these are used as gab-fests for these corrupt and
dishonest parties to influence each other inappropriately and to set the
government position on particular families and cases to which all the parties
must adhere at risk of discipline or loss of income.

As a parent who
risks contact with these corrupt groups, you run the very real risk of being
turned into a falsely accused child abuser. Every contact you have with these
people can be spun to portray you inaccurately, and they will do it willingly so
that even outside objective parties doubt what you say and believe the lies and
distortions of Rady, Chadwick, CPS, and police staff. It may sound alarmist, but
it is a real phenomenon that occurs because there are plentiful incentives for
dishonesty and spin-jobs and inadequate mechanisms for punishing or removing
those who engage in them.

Therapists Become Child

Therapists who are used by CPS and law enforcement
agencies as described above may function as government-paid child abusers and
brainwashers. In such cases, they force psychological trauma on target children
until the children break and do what is demanded of them, even if they know they
are lying. This includes repeating false allegations against the chosen targets
of CPS and the police.

(from San Diego County Grand Jury Report of 1993-1994: Dale Akiki
Case and Prosecutorial Misconduct


Contamination is the act
of introducing outside influences into a person’s subjective experience so that
either his memory of an event or his description of the event is altered.

Kenneth V. Lanning is the Supervisory Special Agent assigned to the
Behavioral Science Unit of the FBI at their academy in Quantico, Virginia. In
his list of possible sources of contamination he includes “overzealous
intervenors.” He points out how interested parties such as parents, other family
members, doctors, therapists, social workers, law enforcement and prosecutors
can create “intervenor contagion.”

Lanning describes how
contamination occurs:

“Victims have been subtly as well as
overtly rewarded and bribed by usually well meaning intervenors for furnishing
details. In addition, some of what appears to have happened may have originated
as a result of intervenors making assumptions about or misinterpreting what the
victims are saying. The intervenors then repeat, and possibly embellish, these
assumptions and misinterpretations and eventually the victims are ‘forced’ to
agree or come to accept this “official” version of what happened.”

the Akiki case it appears that contamination occurred at many levels. First, the
parents had several meetings where the accusations against Dale Akiki were
discussed. Although the parents were cautioned not to talk about these events
with the children, the fact is that at least some of the parents did. One father
even supplied an audiotape of his session with his child.

The therapists
were also a source of contamination. Therapy is not only a possible source of
contamination, it is by its very nature a form of contamination. Therapy is an
active effort to provide the client a new framework to understand the events in
their lives. Therapeutic change on the part of the client is based on
suggestibility. In order for a person to benefit from therapy, some degree of
suggestibility must exist within the client. Unless people were suggestible,
therapy would not work. Contamination in therapy can occur through overt and
covert methods.
Therapists can also contaminate each other, and this is then
passed on to the client. When one therapist deals with more than one client
connected with a particular case, it is possible that information “extracted”
from one client interview can consciously or subconsciously be transferred to a
second client. In addition, when several therapists dealing with different
clients in the same case get together, the possibility of the transfer of
misinformation or misinterpretations exists. The possibility becomes even
greater when all the therapists have a common bias, such as accepting ritual
abuse allegations as established fact.

The best example of contamination
in the Akiki case was the fact that the therapists were not only trying to treat
the children but they were also attempting to be criminal investigators. The
prosecutor asked the therapists to provide more disclosures of abuse. One
therapist reported that she encouraged parents to use the “empty chair”
technique with their child at home so that the child could accuse Dale Akiki,
and act out her anger toward him in effigy. The parents were urging the children
to provide more and more allegations that could be used for trial. The pressures
on the children were enormous.


According to Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology at the
University of Washington and author of several books and articles on memory,
“There is enormous variability in the age of earliest memory from two years to
eight years and occasionally later.” Young people go through a period of
development when their vocabulary has not been fully formed and where they do
not really understand how the world works, so they make up explanations for what
they observe, which may not be very logical.

Psychological studies do
not show a simple relation between age and suggestibility. A person’s
perception, memory and verbal report of an event can be influenced by numerous
factors unrelated to the truth of the incident. Pre-event and post-event
information, interviewer bias, repeated yes-no questioning and the wording of a
question can influence the recall and reporting of an event. Research shows that
young children are generally more suggestible

than older children, and
that children can be made to distort information based on what they believe the
interviewer wants to hear, and this can occur consciously or unconsciously.

The dilemma faced by the prosecution is how to extract believable
testimony from very young children. To aid them in this effort the prosecution
often turns to therapists.


The term “therapist” represents a function, not a title. Persons of
several backgrounds and training are considered capable of treating a child
victim as a therapist. These include social workers holding the credentials of
Marriage, Family, Child Counselor (MFCC) and Licensed Clinical Social Worker
(LCSW), either of whom need to have a Master of Social Work degree. A therapist
may also be a psychologist with a Ph.D., or Psy.D. or a psychiatrist (MD).

San Diego County therapist, Michael Yapko, in his book, states there are
essential key points that therapists need to remember. Some of his findings
include the statements that, “Therapists often hold erroneous views on the
workings of memory, repression and hypnosis; most therapists surveyed admitted
they do nothing to differentiate truth from fiction in their clients’
narratives; Therapists and researchers have no reliable means to distinguish
authentic from false memories and clients’ need for acceptance is a powerful
factor that leads them to conform with therapists’ perceptions.”

author stressed that, “Therapy typically involves more art than science, and how
it is practiced is largely a product of a therapist’s subjective beliefs.”

Families of child victims may privately hire a therapist of their own
choosing; however if the therapist is to be paid through the Child/Victim
Witness Fund they must select from a list of therapists who are approved by the
Juvenile Court. In order to receive court approval, the applicant must complete
an extensive and thorough application showing his/her educational training,
existence of a State license, specialties and experience. They must also affirm
that they have viewed a three-hour videotape and the accompanying syllabus of a
training seminar for therapists. The Jury found that an inexperienced intern
could be covered by this Court approval under the blanket of a licensed
therapist simply by filling out a short two-page application. There is no
screening of the amount of supervision the intern receives.

In fact,
there is no evidence that the applications of the licensed therapists receive
more than a cursory screening or that there is any periodic peer review of the
therapist’s performance. The only peer review protocol that the Grand Jury found
was developed to assist the presiding judge of the Juvenile Court to communicate
with the mental health community on issues relating to the writing of reports,
the format and guidelines adopted for that purpose, and to educate them
concerning the interaction between the work of the court and that of the
therapists. There was no provision for judging the work of the therapist as a
therapist unless a complaint was received, and then the matter was referred to
the presiding judge for action that he/she might feel was appropriate.

Therapists Fail to Adequately Document Their Work

Government-paid therapists and those paid by accusing parties, often
malicious parents in a divorce, often fail to adequately document any of their
work. They do not audio record or video record sessions, and they may take few
if any notes. The result of this sloppiness is that the “evidence” which exists
comes down to hearsay perceptions of the therapist who can spin and distort
statements to be whatever is necessary to endear themselves to CPS. A “good
therapist” from CPS’s perspective is one who documents whatever CPS wants them
to say and hides whatever disagrees with CPS.

Even therapists who do not
believe there is any abuse happening are forced to report abuse by mandatory
child abuse reporting laws. This is what happened in the Dale Akiki case, one of
the most egregious wrongful prosecution cases involving child abuse allegations
in the history of the United States.


In the Akiki case, when suspicion of molestation first
surfaced, the pastor of the church called in a therapist who was a consultant to
the church to interview the children. After interviewing them, he turned in a
report of suspected molestation, as required by law, to the authorities and
referred the children to another therapist who saw each child one time. He later
told the prosecuting deputy district attorney that he did not feel that Dale
Akiki had been involved in any molest. Many of the children underwent a
videotaped evidentiary interview at the CCP at Children’s Hospital.

After that the children were placed in treatment with the various
therapists mentioned above. The Child Victim-Witness Protocol, supposedly
followed by the District Attorney’s office, calls for therapists to assume that
they may be called as witnesses in a trial and that they, therefore, should
maintain “concise, clear and factual records.” In the Akiki case, there was
little or no documentation of any of these sessions which went on for an
extended period some of them twice weekly for years. There were no videotapes or
audiotapes, and notes were either illegible or non-existent.

In addition
to trying to provide healing therapy, some therapists were also engaging in
investigative techniques, trying to extract disclosures of molestation from the
children. Therapists can get children to say just about anything. When children
initially say that nothing happened to them, a misguided therapist labels them
as being in denial. Then “therapy” is sometimes continued for months or
sometimes years until the children disclosed answers the therapists want to

In the case of Alicia W., which was studied by a previous Grand
Jury, the child was kept from her parents and “treated” by a therapist who told
her that she would not be allowed to return to her parents until she admitted
that her father had raped her. The child originally disclosed that a stranger
had entered her bedroom window, but no one believed her until conclusive
physical evidence proved that her statements were true.

Records show
that most of the therapists involved in the Akiki case attended the seminar
where the training video for therapists was filmed. The Jury found that the
training video was excellent, but concluded that there was a blatant disregard
of its contents when it came to working with the children.

Tactics such
as the brainwashing and threats used on Alicia Wade are emotional and verbal
abuse against a child. They are paid for with San Diego County taxpayer dollars.
As a result, all taxpaying citizens of San Diego are forced to contribute to the
child abuse epidemic in the county because they help fund child abuse by the

Therapists who engage in these forms of child abuse refuse
to document them in any way. The result is that they help protect themselves
from prosecution and lawsuits to hold them responsible for the child abuse they
have committed under government direction. Usually this cover-up succeeds very
well. The exceptions are few and far between, but include cases such as the Wade
family lawsuit that resulted in CPS-hired therapist Kathleen Goodfriend losing
her license and being held liable for a judgement of $1 million for her abusive
treatment of Alicia Wade.

CPS agencies across the state are on record as
opposing liability for misconduct of social workers and the people they hire to
abuse children under the guise of “therapy” as is shown by the record for
California Assembly Bill 1355 in 1995:

(from California AB 1355)

DIGEST: This bill
specifies that immunity from prosecution does not include specified acts on the
part of a juvenile social worker, child protection worker or other public
Senate Floor Amendments of 9/8/95 recast provisions that are not
covered by immunity.

ANALYSIS: Existing law confers an absolute immunity
on various persons who are required by law to file reports under the Child Abuse
and Neglect Reporting Act. Other persons who file reports under the Act, but who
are not required to do so, are liable only if the report is false, and the
person knew the report was false, or recklessly disregarded the truth of falsity
of the report.[Penal Code Section 11172.]

Existing law also immunizes
various persons who, in good faith, file reports under the Child Welfare
Services Act. It also immunizes the same persons for “participation in any
judicial proceeding resulting from” such a report. [Welfare and Institutions
Code Section 165113.]

This bill provides that, notwithstanding any other
provision of the law, the civil immunity of juvenile court social workers, child
protection workers, and other public employees authorized to initiate or conduct
investigations or proceedings shall not extend to any of the following:

1. Perjury.

2. Fabrication of evidence.

3. Failure to
disclose known exculpatory evidence.

4. Obtaining testimony by duress.

As used in this section, omaliceo means conduct that is intended by the
person described in subdivision (a) to cause injury to the plaintiff or
despicable conduct that is carried on by the person described in subdivision (a)
with a willful and conscious disregard of the rights or safety of others.

Note: This bill has been amended in the Senate Judiciary Committee. As
it was voted on in the Assembly, the immunization was the same as the civil
immunity provided to peace officers.


In Superior Court v. Goodfriend (1993) 169 Cal.App.4th 169, the
Fourth District held that the Act (specifically Penal Code Section 11172) “… is
a reporting statute and its protection runs to reporting: it does not apply to
activities that continue more than two years after the initial report of abuse
by parties who are not acting as reporters.” [p. 174.]

The Goodfriend
case arose from the Wade family’s experience with the dependency system and has
become infamous as an example of how much emotional and financial harm the
current system can cause to a child and her family. The following account is
taken from the Fourth District’s opinion:

On the morning of May 9, 1989,
eight-year-old Alicia Wade complained of pain when she went to the bathroom. Her
parents brought her to the Navy medical unit by 8:30 a.m. The family was then
escorted to Children’s Hospital where staff determined that Alicia had been
raped and sodomized, and filed a report under the Act. Alicia stated that a man
had come through her bedroom window and hurt her.

Late that afternoon, a
hospital worker and detective accused Alicia’s father of the molest. In an
attempt to prove the father’s innocence, the parents agreed to have their home
searched and talk with the police, and the father submitted to a rape test, a
DNA test and three polygraph tests.

By May 11, the Department of Social
Services (DSS) filed a dependency action and the following day had Alicia placed
in temporary foster care. Meanwhile, DSS investigative employee Diane Anderson
interviewed the parents and referred them to a private family counselor,
Kathleen Goodfriend. At her first session with the family on May 11, Goodfriend
accused the father of the assault.

In July 1989, the family’s attorney
advised them to plead nolo contendere to a charge of neglect and assured them
all other charges would be dropped. The attorney added that, assuming the
parents passed a psychological evaluation and found a 24-hour caretaker, Alicia
would be home within a week. The parents reluctantly accepted the plea bargain
in order to get their daughter home and put the experience behind them.
Notwithstanding that the psychological exam was favorable and the family had
provided the names of three 24-hour caretakers, counselor Goodfriend refused to
cooperate and DSS later backed out of the agreement.

For over a year
after her attack, Alicia stood firm in her insistence that her father was not
the assailant. Further, the same month that Alicia was attacked, a man entered
the bedroom window of a four-year-old girl living across the street from the
Wades, abducting the girl and attempting to rape her. The man, Carder, a
registered sex offender, was arrested in June, 1989 and by August was charged
with four criminal cases involving minors, but not with the Wade case.
Goodfriend, the District Attorney and DSS were all aware of the Carder cases.

Goodfriend and the foster-parents put continuing pressure on Alicia to
“confess” that her father was the one who assaulted her. Directing Alicia to say
her father was guilty, Goodfriend repeatedly told the child: (1) she knew
Alicia’s father had molested her; (2) Alicia would feel a lot better if she
admitted it; (3) the “story” Alicia had been telling was not believable; (4)
Alicia’s mother had been assaulted by Alicia’s grandfather; and (5) if she
wanted to go home, Alicia would have to say her father was the perpetrator. At
Goodfriend’s direction, every night when she was put to bed, the foster-mother
told Alicia “over and over again” that Alicia’s father had raped her.

During all this time, Alicia was completely cut off from her family. Her
mother did not see her for a full year and her father did not see her for two

Finally, Alicia yielded in June 1990, finally stating that her
father was guilty. She testified against her father in July. In September,
Alicia, her mother and brother entered “conjoint” therapy with Goodfriend. By
November, the mother was so overwhelmed that she attempted suicide and was
placed in a locked ward until January, 1991. Alicia’s father was arrested in
December, 1990.

New counsel for father had Alicia’s nightgown, worn the
night she was raped, tested and the DNA test proved that her father could not
have committed the rape and, instead, Carder was among the nine percent of the
population whose DNA would have matched that found on Alicia’s nightgown.

The Wade family sued and the trial court sustained the demurrers of the
defendants based upon the various immunities provided in law. In their petition
for writ of mandate, the family argued that, “the courts have moved beyond the
Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Act, Penal Code sections 11164 et seq., to
come full circle so those who abuse children in the name of preventing abuse are
immunized by the very law meant to protect children.” [p. 173.]

finding liability on the part of Goodfriend and the foster-parents, the Fourth
District noted that they came onto the scene after the initial reporting of
abuse and “voluntarily assumed roles of those who, having received the report
and determined the identity of the perpetrator, search for corroboration and/or
attempt to pressure a witness to get a conviction.” [p.176.]

demurrers to all causes of action against the social worker and DSS were
sustained because of the statutory immunity.

Appropriation: No Fiscal Com.: No Local: No

SUPPORT: (Verified 9/8/95)

Child and Family Protection Association
Coalition of Parent Support

Fathers’ Rights and Equality Exchange
Committee on Moral Concerns

Grandparents as Parents

OPPOSITION: (Verified 9/8/95)
Welfare Directors
National Association of Social Workers
State Association of Counties
California Independent Public Employees
Legislative Council, Inc.
Service Employees International Union, Calif.
State Council
County of Sacramento

author’s office believes that the absolute immunity of social workers, when
coupled with their power and influence in a dependency case, has created a lack
of checks that is needed to maintain an appropriate balance between these two
types of harm. The author states it is his intent in this bill to provide that
needed balance.

Supporters argue that judges simply “rubber stamp” the
report and recommendations of the social workers in these cases.

ARGUMENTS IN OPPOSITION: The concern raised by opponents, and noted by
the courts prior to Goodfriend, is that any limitation on their immunity would
make social workers too fearful of lawsuits to appropriately intervene to
protect an endangered child.

Opponents state that the decision to remove
a child from his or her home, in the first instance, is made with little that is
immediately verifiable in the way of information and the possibility of harm to
the child may be such that a social worker would generally err on the side of
caution and remove the child.

How is psychologically torturing a child
for more than a year into making false accusations against a parent “in the best
interests of the child”? The answer is that it is not, it is in the best
interests of the social workers and government. They don’t care about hurting
children if they can profit from it.

Although AB 1355 was signed into
law in 1995 by Governor Pete Wilson, it has not had the effect of holding social
workers liable for misconduct. This is because now social workers and the
government keep cases out of juvenile and criminal court when they know they
have lied and manipulated witnesses and evidence. By doing so, they can keep
children from families for years and escape prosecution and civil litigation for
their misconduct.

Prosectorial Misconduct by District

When an alleged child abuse case is passed
along from CPS to the police for continued investigation, it seems that might
eliminate some of the lack of objectivity and gender bias from the situation.
But the reality is that it does not. The San Diego Police Department and related
law enforcement agencies are in close contact with CPS, Rady Children’s
Hospital, Chadwick Center, and the Child Abuse Unit in the District Attorney’s
office. All of these groups frequently interact with each other and do so in a
fashion that spreads bias and lack of objectivity.

This can and does
lead to severe prosecutorial misconduct going so far as prosecuting people for
child abuse crimes that it is unlikely they committed and which in fact may
never have occurred at all. Often such wrongful prosecutions are done by
intentionally hiding evidence from the accused with intent to win a case at the
expense of justice.

(from San Diego County Grand Jury Report of 1993-1994: Dale Akiki
Case and Prosecutorial Misconduct

The Grand Jury notes
that Brady v. Maryland indicates that it is the duty of the prosecution to
disclose evidence favorable to the defense exists in constitutional due process,
both in state and Federal jurisdictions. In California, such disclosure must be
made voluntarily. It is held in People v. Wright, “We have imposed a stricter
duty on prosecutors in this state, by requiring them to disclose material
evidence favorable to the accused without request.”

The Grand
Jury notes that the U. S. Supreme Court has stated, “The United States Attorney
is the representative not of an ordinary party to a controversy, but of a
sovereignty whose obligation to govern impartially is as compelling as its
obligation to govern at all; and whose interest, therefore, in a criminal
prosecution is not that it shall win a case, but that justice shall be done. As
such, he is in a peculiar and very definite sense the servant of the law, the
twofold aim of which is that guilt shall not escape or innocence suffer. He may
prosecute with earnestness and vigor indeed, he should do so. But, while he may
strike hard blows, he is not at liberty to strike foul ones. It is as much his
duty to refrain from improper methods calculated to produce a wrongful
conviction as it is to use every legitimate means to bring about a just one.”

The philosophy expressed applies equally to all public prosecutors.

The extent and consistency of disclosure by deputy district attorneys to
the defense of material evidence, or information which might lead to material
evidence, favorable to the accused has been considered by the Grand Jury. In the
Akiki case, the prosecuting deputy district attorney failed to disclose in a
timely manner the fact and result of a surveillance of the accused conducted
prior to charging. Such disclosure ultimately was made under imposition of court
order. Further, the fact of the investigation of alleged child sexual abuse by a
known prior offender, involving a victim related to and occurring near the time
of the alleged incidents in the Akiki case, was not disclosed to the defense.
Moreover, the investigation of that reported occurrence was not pursued. These
circumstances were learned by the defense through an anonymous tip.

Moreover, in an unrelated matter, the Grand Jury has taken notice of
reversal by the Court of Appeal, Fourth Appellate District of a conviction
because of failure of the District Attorney’s office to reveal information
bearing on the credibility and professional competence of a principal
prosecution witness. And, in the civil aftermath of an ill-fated sexual abuse
prosecution, notice is taken of allegations of failure to disclose and lack of
truthfulness on the part of a deputy district attorney as reported in the
opinion of the Court of Appeal.

Yet, the Grand Jury has found that
prosecutors both in this and other jurisdictions, as well as jurists, were of
the opinion that those items of potential evidence which were withheld or
ignored by the District Attorney’s office should have been disclosed promptly
and voluntarily to the defense. As to the yet unproved allegations of
suppression and lack of truthfulness, the Grand Jury can only express its grave

Although the Grand Jury has observed some excellent lawyers in
the District Attorney’s office, certain members of that office have become
obsessed with the idea of “winning cases.” The fact that “It is their duty to
see to it that those accused of crime are afforded a fair trial” has been
forgotten or overlooked. Because the District Attorney’s office is charged not
only with pursuing and prosecuting criminals, but also with doing justice, the
fine balance that must be struck is easily outweighed by overzealous
prosecution. An atmosphere of conviction, and conviction only, can be expected
to produce inadequate investigation, incomplete disclosure to the defense and
sharp practices. The District Attorney must provide leadership to change any
such attitudes in his office at the earliest possible time.

San Diego County Board of Supervisors is Negligent and
Knowingly Enables Abusive Tactics Including Civil Rights Abuses and
Government-Sponsored Child Abuse

The failures and
shortcomings in the CPS agency in the county have been brought to the attention
of the Board of Supervisors repeatedly. Yet they do effective nothing to fix the
problems, leaving CPS and its abusive staff free to continue to abuse the
county’s children and parents.

There is no realistic doubt that the
current San Diego County Board of Supervisors is substantially at fault for the
abuses in the current system. Grand Jury reports have exposed the problems to
them over and over again with substantial evidence of the misconduct of CPS and
its sister child-abusing agencies. But little to no action is taken to correct
the serious deficiencies.
The current Board of Supervisors consists of Greg
Cox, Dianne Jacob, Pam Slater-Price, Ron Roberts, and Bill Horn. All five of the
supervisors have been in office since 1995 or earlier, a period of time during
which Grand Jury investigations have consistently shown that serious problems
exist with CPS and that the agency blows off the recommendations to fix them on
a routine basis.

The county supervisors have no incentive to clean up
problems in the system because to do so, those problems must be discussed
further. This is political risk-taking intolerable to them. They know they were
in charge during this whole period of time and should have done something about
the problems. Doing it now is effectively an admission that they were negligent
in the past. Instead, they do all they can to bury these problems behind the
scenes so that they are not politically damaged by their harmful and negligent

(from No Term Limits for San Diego County Supervisors)

Three of San Diego County’s five member Board of Supervisors were sworn
in again today. There are no term limits for County Supervisors, and all of them
have been on the board for more than 12 years. KPBS reporter Alison St John has

The Board of Supervisors uses county executives and county counsel
such as Walter Ekard and John Sansone to cover up for themselves. These people
year after year write “responses” to Grand Jury investigations that whitewash
the wrongdoings, hide the responsibility of the Board of Supervisors, make
excuses for the agencies not fixing problems, and enable the abuses and
misconduct to continue. They also participate in cover-ups and enablement of
wrongdoing by individual supervisors, too.

The San Diego County Board of
Supervisors must be recalled or voted out of office if there is to be any
meaningful reform of the abusive County of San Diego Child Welfare Services
agency and its related government perpetrators of civil rights, family, and
child abuse.

Secondly, the executive staff of the County of San Diego
must have its head chopped off. The figurative guillotine should surgically
excise Walter Ekard, John Sansone, and people in positions like them out of the
top two or three levels of county government. They should be replaced with
government officials who understand that they are responsible for ensuring
County of San Diego agencies comply with laws, do not abuse the civil rights of
families, and do not engage in child abuse and other illegal actions. The
replacements for these corrupt executives should not come from within the County
of San Diego as the county government is corrupt to its core and the culture of
corruption and dishonesty is spread by the executives down the line to social
workers as a matter of policy and “de facto” behaviors.

The Board of
Supervisors and county executive staff replacements should come from groups that
have exercised significant resistance to the wrongdoings of the County. Groups
that have argued against civil rights violations, wasteful government spending,
and police and law enforcement abuses are prime sources for candidates for these
elected and hired positions.

There must also be much more transparency
of government implemented in San Diego County. Law enforcement and CPS routinely
use the law to hide their misconduct from the public. They cite “privacy
concerns” as reasons to fail to release evidence that damns their conduct as
corrupt and lawless. Even citizens who have been egregiously wronged have
trouble getting to any of this evidence. Further, if they dare oppose the
government, they risk retaliation. CPS and the police retaliate against
“troublemaking parents” by taking away their children with no good cause and
then turning what should be routine investigations that take a few weeks into
many months or years of refusal to comply with the law, refusal to comply with
judicial directions, and working relentlessly to build a cast of co-conspirators
who will help defend each other from their misconduct and pin the blame for it
all on the target parent.

San Diego’s children and their parents are not
safe from government abuse at the hands of CPS and its allies until the agencies
and people who engage in these unlawful and abusive activities are removed from
their positions and punished or prosecuted for their misconduct.

RodneyUse of Our Content (Reposting and Quoting)

July 19th, 2009
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Written by dawneworswick

July 15, 2011 at 10:22 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

Review: CPS errors, bias contributed to child’s death

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Review: CPS errors, bias contributed  to child’s death

 By Marjie Lundstrom

Published:  Friday, Jun. 25, 2010 –  4:43 pm | Page 1A
Last Modified: Tuesday,  Mar.  1, 2011 –  3:20 pm

            A searing internal review of Sacramento County’s Child Protective  Services has concluded that judgment errors and bias among agency workers were  factors in the 2008 death of a 4 1/2-year-old foster child.

For the first time since Amariana  Crenshaw died in January 2008, top agency officials acknowledged a series of  mistakes leading up to the girl’s death – and outlined how they plan to fix  them.

“For all our good intentions, we were really not on track,” said CPS Director  Laura Coulthard, who became tearful at times discussing the case.

“As painful as it is, it’s also just a great call to all of us that we  can’t work in silos, we’ve got to come together, we’ve got to be  accountable.”

Coulthard said the agency’s internal review was in direct response to a Bee  series published in January about Amariana’s death while in foster care. The  Bee’s investigation raised numerous questions about the quality of care the  little girl received in the crowded and tumultuous foster home of Tracy Dossman,  who has since been decertified for foster care by the state.

CPS continued to place children in Dossman’s care for more than two years  after Amariana’s body was pulled from a burning rental home owned by the foster  provider. The case remains unsolved by Sacramento police, who are investigating  the child’s death as a homicide after at least one Molotov  cocktail ignited in the room where Amariana reportedly was sleeping.

The report and an accompanying letter released Thursday detail a “troubling  combination of organizational, practice and communication issues” involving both  front-line social workers and supervisors.

For instance, Amariana – during just 30 months in foster care – was seen by  seven different CPS social workers as well as numerous social workers for the  private foster family agencies that monitored the home.

Coulthard’s boss, Ann Edwards-Buckley, told The Bee that CPS is “absolutely  committed” to making changes, despite deep budget cuts. By month’s end, the agency will have cut 34  percent of its staff in the last two years – including some 142 social worker  positions.

“The kind of change we are implementing is a culture change,” said  Edwards-Buckley, director of the county’s Department of Health and Human  Services. “That kind of change takes time to kind of imbed and infuse deeply  into the organization.”

Coulthard and Edwards-Buckley also said some disciplinary action has been  taken as a result of Amariana’s case but would not elaborate. Both said that  aspect remains under review.

Mother’s concerns ignored


A recurring theme throughout the review is that CPS workers trusted Dossman  and took her word “at face value,” failing to adequately investigate numerous  allegations of abuse and neglect in the foster home. One of the CPS supervisors  overseeing the foster home was a close friend of Dossman, and was buying the  rental property from her at the time of the fire.

Dossman repeatedly has declined to talk with The Bee.

Compounding the problem within CPS, the report found, was a “bias” against  Amariana’s biological mother, Anisha Hill, who frequently complained to CPS  about injuries her daughter was suffering in foster care. Workers dismissed  Hill’s claims about her daughter because she and Dossman, who are loosely  related, had been feuding, the investigator found.

It was only when the county reopened the case this spring that it confirmed  what The Bee reported in January – that Amariana had been seen by medical  providers 17 times in a two-year span while living with Dossman. Only half of  those medical visits were reported to officials by the foster parent, in  violation of state licensing regulations.

And, the county learned that Dossman had failed to follow through on mental  health treatment for Amariana, who exhibited such behaviors as hoarding food,  gorging and vomiting, and banging her head.

She received only four visits with a counselor before Dossman began missing  appointments.

“The foster parent gave just a list of excuses,” said Coulthard.

The investigation also found that seven referrals alleging “specific  maltreatment” of Amariana while in Dossman’s care were “not investigated  according to (CPS) standards.”

Most of the investigations relied on Dossman’s explanations for the girl’s  injuries, or on a “visual observation” of the girl.

Foster mom adopted sister


Amariana’s biological father, Curtis Crenshaw, also raised concerns about his  daughter’s frequent black eyes and split lips while in foster care, according to  internal records from CPS and the Juvenile Court.

Crenshaw expressed sadness Thursday over the CPS internal review, saying it  will not bring back his daughter.

“She (Dossman) had too much help from CPS,” Crenshaw said.

Amariana’s mother, Hill, could not be reached Thursday for comment, as she  was recently arrested on a federal probation violation related to drug use. But Hill had previously expressed deep concerns  about the welfare of another daughter, now 10, who was adopted by Dossman after  the fire.

Coulthard and Edwards-Buckley said they could not publicly comment on that  aspect of the case, because the child was legally adopted.

Heed ‘smaller factors,’ too


A letter e-mailed Thursday to child advocates and agencies, signed by  Coulthard, expressed regret over Amariana’s “tragic death” and a commitment to  addressing the “larger systemic issues” that were uncovered.

But Coulthard also stressed a need to focus on the “smaller factors” that can  significantly affect a child’s safety.

“As the Sacramento Bee noted in its 2008 series on CPS, ‘the tipping point  for kids’ safety often comes down to seemingly small things: … an unanswered  knock at the door, a miscue between agencies, a lack of follow-through, an  incomplete background check … ‘ “

The agency’s public acknowledgment of errors and the scope of its internal  review were applauded by one child advocate who has been among the agency’s  toughest critics.

Robert Wilson, executive director of the nonprofit Sacramento Child  Advocates, said he believes CPS leadership is committed to change.

“I can’t recall ever seeing a government agency take this kind of ownership,”  said Wilson, whose team of attorneys represents children in Dependency  Court.

Coulthard and Edwards-Buckley said the internal review of Amariana’s journey  through the system already has prompted changes.

For instance, all investigations of suspected abuse and neglect will be  centralized in the Emergency Response program, where social workers have the  most experience with such inquiries.

“This will also protect against possible bias by the case-carrying social  worker,” who tends to have a more personal relationship with the foster  provider, the investigation concluded.

Among other changes:

• CPS and the state’s Community Care Licensing Division are developing a  process for joint review when a foster home has had two or more complaints.

• CPS social workers will begin contacting the medical providers for foster  children every six months, ensuring that records are up to date and identifying  any necessary follow-up.

• All deaths or near-deaths of children with CPS histories will be  scrutinized at the top levels. Amariana’s case was given only a cursory review  after the fire because it was not believed to be the result of abuse or  neglect.

• Plans are under way to create an in-house panel charged with evaluating all  alleged conflicts of interest by CPS staff.

© Copyright The Sacramento Bee.  All rights  reserved.

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Written by dawneworswick

July 15, 2011 at 9:58 pm

Posted in Uncategorized


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